S-3ASR
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 4, 2022

Registration No. 333-          

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Lyell Immunopharma, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware   83-1300510

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

201 Haskins Way

South San Francisco, California 94080

(650) 695-0677

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Elizabeth Homans

Chief Executive Officer

Lyell Immunopharma, Inc.

201 Haskins Way

South San Francisco, California 94080

(650) 695-0677

 

 

(Name, address and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

Copies to:

Dave Peinsipp

Chadwick Mills

Cooley LLP

3 Embarcadero Center, 20th Floor

San Francisco, CA 94111

(415) 693-2000

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box:  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box:  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering:  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains:

 

   

a base prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us and/or the offering and sale by selling securityholders of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and/or warrants from time to time in one or more offerings; and

 

   

a prospectus supplement covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $200,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under an equity distribution agreement with Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The prospectus supplement covering the offering, issuance and sale pursuant to the equity distribution agreement immediately follows the base prospectus.


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PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

 

 

From time to time, Lyell Immunopharma, Inc. or selling stockholders may offer and sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in combination with other securities in one or more offerings. We or any selling stockholders may also offer common stock upon conversion of preferred stock, common stock or preferred stock upon conversion of debt securities, or common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants.

This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time securities are sold pursuant to this prospectus, we will provide the specific terms of these offerings and securities in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before buying any of the securities being offered.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbol “LYEL.” On August 1, 2022, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $5.54 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the section titled “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus and any similar section contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

The securities may be sold directly to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers, on a continuous or delayed basis. The supplements to this prospectus will provide the specific terms of the plan of distribution. If any agents, underwriters or dealers are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such agents, underwriters or dealers and any applicable fees, commissions, discounts and options to purchase additional shares will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, we will not receive any proceeds from the sale of securities by selling securityholders.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is August 4, 2022.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     i  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     6  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     7  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     16  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     23  

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

     25  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     30  

LEGAL MATTERS

     32  

EXPERTS

     32  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     32  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     32  

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of an automatic registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC), utilizing a “shelf” registration process as a “well-known seasoned issuer,” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. Under this shelf registration process, we or selling securityholders may offer and sell shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination with other securities, in one or more offerings. There is no limit on the aggregate amount of the securities that we or selling securityholders may offer pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we or selling securityholders may offer.

Each time we or selling securityholders offer securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We urge you to read carefully this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the section titled “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference,” before buying any of the securities being offered.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with an offering. We have not authorized any other person to provide you with different or additional information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement

 

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and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections of this prospectus captioned “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.”

We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, our securities only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus and any related prospectus supplement and the offering of our securities in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus and any related prospectus supplement must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of our securities and the distribution of this prospectus and any related prospectus supplement outside the United States. This prospectus and any related prospectus supplement does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus and any related prospectus supplement by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

We obtained the industry and market data included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus from our own research as well as from industry and general publications, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. These data involve a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. In addition, projections, assumptions and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the industry in which we operate is necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in any related prospectus supplement and documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any related prospectus supplement. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us.

This prospectus and any related prospectus supplement, including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any related prospectus supplement, include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or others. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the section titled “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this prospectus to “Lyell Immunopharma,” “Lyell,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Lyell Immunopharma, Inc.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage T-cell reprogramming company dedicated to developing curative cell therapies for patients with solid tumors. We take a systematic, interrogative, cell biology-driven approach to overcome what we view as the two major barriers to successful Adoptive Cell Therapy (ACT)—(1) T-cell exhaustion and (2) lack of durable stemness—through the application of our proprietary ex vivo genetic and epigenetic reprogramming technologies, Gen-R and Epi-R. Gen-R is designed to overcome loss of T-cell function attributable to an exhausted state, and Epi-R is designed to create T-cell populations with properties of durable stemness. T cells with properties of durable stemness are able to proliferate, persist and self-renew, as well as generate differentiated effector cell progenies to provide durable anti-tumor functionality.

Our technologies are designed to be applied in a target and modality agnostic manner to chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and T-cell receptor (TCR) therapies to fundamentally improve the properties of T cells needed to eradicate solid tumors. We believe our autologous T-cell therapies will generate improved, durable clinical outcomes that are potentially curative for patients with solid tumors. We are building a multi-modality product pipeline across several solid tumor indications with high unmet needs.

We are advancing a product pipeline of promising living cell product candidates across multiple ACT modalities that incorporate our Gen-R and Epi-R technology platforms. We are applying our Gen-R and Epi-R technology platforms to our lead CAR T-cell product candidate, LYL797, which is expected to be an IV administered CAR T-cell product targeting receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1). We are initially developing LYL797 for the treatment of ROR1+ triple-negative breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. We are applying our Epi-R technology to develop our product candidate, LYL845, which is expected to be an IV administered autologous TIL therapy in multiple solid tumors. Each of our programs provide opportunities to expand into additional indications beyond the patient populations we are initially targeting.

We were incorporated in June 2018. Our primary activities to date have included developing T-cell therapies, performing research and development, acquiring technology, entering into strategic collaboration and license agreements, building manufacturing capability, enabling and executing manufacturing activities in support of our product candidate development efforts, organizing and staffing the company, business planning, establishing our intellectual property portfolio, preparing for and initiating clinical trials, raising capital and providing general and administrative support for these activities. We are early in our research and development efforts and just beginning clinical development of our product candidates. Besides LYL797 and LYL132 (NY-ESO-1 + Epi-R), all of our other product candidates are currently in preclinical development. We also do not have any products approved for sale.

 

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Corporate Information

We were founded in June 2018 as a Delaware corporation. Our principal executive offices are located at 201 Haskins Way, South San Francisco, California 94080 and our telephone number is (650) 695-0677. Our website address is www.lyell.com. Information found on, or accessible through, our website is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus or part of any prospectus supplement. Our website address is included in this prospectus as an inactive textual reference only.

The Securities We May Offer

We or selling securityholders may offer shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination with other securities, from time to time under this prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of any offering. We may also offer common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we or selling securityholders may offer. Each time we or selling securityholders offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

designation or classification;

 

   

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

 

   

maturity date, if applicable;

 

   

original issue discount, if any;

 

   

rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

 

   

redemption, conversion, exercise, exchange or sinking fund terms, if any;

 

   

conversion or exchange prices or rates, if any, and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange;

 

   

ranking;

 

   

restrictive covenants, if any;

 

   

voting or other rights, if any; and

 

   

material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations, if any.

The applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference.

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

We or selling securityholders may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. If we or selling securityholders do offer securities to or through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

   

the names of those agents or underwriters;

 

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applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

 

   

details regarding options to purchase additional shares or other options, if any; and

 

   

the estimated net proceeds to us, if any.

Common Stock. We may issue shares of our common stock from time to time. The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any outstanding shares of preferred stock, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably such dividends as may be declared by our board of directors out of legally available funds. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities and the liquidation preferences of any outstanding shares of preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive rights and no right to convert their common stock into any other securities. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the common stock under the section titled “Description of Capital Stock—Common Stock.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to any common stock being offered.

Preferred Stock. We may issue shares of our preferred stock from time to time, in one or more series. Under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority to designate up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and determine or alter the designation, rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions granted to or imposed upon any series of preferred stock, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of the common stock. If we sell any new series of preferred stock under this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, our board of directors will determine the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock being offered, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, preemptive rights, terms of redemption or repurchase, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of any series. Preferred stock may be convertible into our common stock or other securities of ours, or may be exchangeable for debt securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at your option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

If we sell any series of preferred stock under this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, we will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences, and rights of the preferred stock of each series we issue under this prospectus, as well as the qualifications, limitations, or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that contains the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the preferred stock under the section titled “Description of Capital Stock — Preferred Stock.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.

Debt Securities. We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible or exchangeable debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. Conversion or exchange may be mandatory or at your option and would be at prescribed conversion rates or exchange prices.

 

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Any debt securities issued under this prospectus will be issued under one or more documents called indentures, which are contracts between us and a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities under the section titled “Description of Debt Securities.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

Warrants. We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or in combination with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants under section titled “Description of Warrants.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as the form of warrant and/or any warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants. We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that we may offer as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants.

Any warrants issued under this prospectus may be evidenced by warrant certificates. Warrants also may be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.

Selling Securityholders

Selling securityholders are persons or entities that, directly or indirectly, have acquired or will from time to time acquire from us, our securities. Information about selling securityholders, if any, will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. See section titled “Selling Securityholders” in this prospectus.

Use of Proceeds

Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by us hereunder, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes, including research and development expenses and capital expenditures, or for any other purpose we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. See “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, we will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of our securities by selling securityholders.

 

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Nasdaq Global Select Market Listing

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “LYEL.” The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the section titled “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus and discussed under the section titled “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering. The risks described in these documents are not the only ones we face, but those that we consider to be material. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on our future results. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our securities to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also read carefully the section below titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, as well as the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement, contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act). These statements relate to our future events, including our anticipated operations, research, development and commercialization activities, clinical trials, operating results and financial condition. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

the sufficiency of our existing cash to fund our future operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements;

 

   

the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, revenue opportunities, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

the scope, progress, results and costs of developing LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, and conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials, including for LYL797 and LYL845;

 

   

the timing and costs involved in obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, and the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, including our expectation to seek special designations for our product candidates for various diseases;

 

   

our expectations regarding GlaxoSmithKline’s (GSK) plans for the NY-ESO-1 programs;

 

   

our plans relating to commercializing LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, if approved, including the geographic areas of focus and our ability to grow a sales force;

 

   

the size of the market opportunity for LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop in each of the diseases we target;

 

   

our reliance on third parties to conduct preclinical research activities for LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop;

 

   

the characteristics, safety, efficacy and therapeutic effects of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop;

 

   

our estimates of the number of patients in the United States who suffer from the diseases we target and the number of subjects that will enroll in our clinical trials;

 

   

the progress and focus of our and GSK’s current and planned clinical trials of our product candidates, and the reporting of data from those trials, including the timing thereof;

 

   

the ability of our clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, and other positive results;

 

   

the success of competing therapies that are, or may become, available;

 

   

developments relating to our competitors and our industry, including competing product candidates and therapies;

 

   

our plans relating to the further development and manufacturing of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, including additional indications that we may pursue;

 

   

existing regulations and regulatory developments in the United States and other jurisdictions;

 

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our potential and ability to successfully manufacture and supply LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop for clinical trials and for commercial use, if approved;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, as well as the pricing and reimbursement of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, if approved;

 

   

our continued reliance on third parties to conduct additional clinical trials of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, and for the manufacture of our product candidates;

 

   

the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights, including LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop;

 

   

our ability to retain the continued service of our key personnel and to identify, hire and then retain additional qualified personnel;

 

   

our expectations regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and operations, including clinical trials, manufacturing suppliers, collaborators, use of contract research organizations and employees;

 

   

our expectations regarding the period during which we will qualify as an emerging growth company under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012;

 

   

our anticipated use of our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities; and

 

   

our intended use of the net proceeds from offerings of our securities under this prospectus.

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by use of future dates or by terms such as: “anticipates,” “believes,” “continues,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “seeks,” “should,” “will,” “likely,” “ongoing,” “project,” “assume,” “target,” “forecast,” “guidance,” “objective,” “aim,” “goal” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events, are based on assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties. Given these assumptions, risks and uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We cannot guarantee that any forward-looking statement will be realized. We discuss in greater detail, and incorporate by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, many of these risks and uncertainties under the section titled “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement, in any free writing prospectus we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering, and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC. Also, these forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of the document containing the applicable statement. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information or future events or developments. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements. You should read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement, together with the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in the foregoing documents by these cautionary statements.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by us hereunder, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes, including research and development expenses and capital expenditures, or for any other purpose we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, we will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of our securities by selling securityholders.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

As of the date of this prospectus, our amended and restated certificate of corporation (the Restated Certificate) our authorized capital stock consists of 500,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share. All of our authorized shares of preferred stock will be undesignated.

This information may not be complete in all respects and is qualified entirely by reference to the provisions of the Restated Certificate, our amended and restated bylaws (Bylaws), our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement and the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware. For information on how to obtain copies of the Restated Certificate, our Bylaws and our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, which are exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, see the section titled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Common Stock

Voting Rights. The common stock is entitled to one vote per share on any matter that is submitted to a vote of our stockholders. Our Restated Certificate does not provide for cumulative voting for the election of directors. Our Restated Certificate establishes a classified board of directors that is divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only the directors in one class will be subject to election by a plurality of the votes cast at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the directors in the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms. The affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of capital stock, voting as a single class, will be required to amend certain provisions of our Restated Certificate, including provisions relating to amending our Bylaws, the classified structure of our board of directors, the size of our board of directors, removal of directors, director liability, vacancies on our board of directors, special meetings, stockholder notices, actions by written consent and exclusive jurisdiction.

Economic Rights. Except as otherwise expressly provided in our Restated Certificate or required by applicable law, all shares of common stock will have the same rights and privileges and rank equally, share ratably and be identical in all respects for all matters, including those described below.

 

   

Dividends. Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of funds legally available if our board of directors, in its discretion, determines to issue dividends and then only at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine.

 

   

Liquidation Rights. On our liquidation, dissolution, or winding-up, the holders of common stock will be entitled to share equally, identically and ratably in all assets remaining after the payment of any liabilities, liquidation preferences and accrued or declared but unpaid dividends, if any, with respect to any outstanding preferred stock, unless a different treatment is approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of such affected class, voting separately as a class.

No Preemptive or Similar Rights. The holders of our shares of common stock are not entitled to preemptive rights, and are not subject to conversion, redemption or sinking fund provisions.

Fully Paid and Non-Assessable. When we issue shares of common stock under this prospectus, the shares will be fully paid and non-assessable.

Preferred Stock

Under the Restated Certificate, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each such series, to fix the rights, preferences and privileges of the

 

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shares of each wholly unissued series and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereon and to increase or decrease the number of shares of any such series, but not below the number of shares of such series then outstanding.

Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of the common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in our control that may otherwise benefit holders of our common stock and may adversely affect the market price of the common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of common stock.

Our board of directors will determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of each series of the preferred stock that we sell under this prospectus and applicable prospectus supplements in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of the certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock that we are offering before the issuance of the related series of preferred stock. This description will include:

 

   

the title and stated value;

 

   

the number of shares we are offering;

 

   

the liquidation preference per share;

 

   

the purchase price per share;

 

   

the dividend rate per share, dividend period and payment dates and method of calculation for dividends;

 

   

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

 

   

our right, if any, to defer payment of dividends and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

   

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;

 

   

the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;

 

   

the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

 

   

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

   

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or other securities of ours, including warrants, and, if applicable, the conversion period, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and under what circumstances it may be adjusted;

 

   

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable for debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange period, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and under what circumstances it may be adjusted;

 

   

voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock;

 

   

preemption rights, if any;

 

   

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;

 

   

a discussion of any material or special United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

 

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any limitations on issuances of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock being issued as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

 

   

any other specific terms, rights, preferences, privileges, qualifications or restrictions of the preferred stock.

Voting Rights. The Delaware General Corporation Law (the DGCL) provides that the holders of preferred stock will have the right to vote separately as a class on any proposal involving fundamental changes in the rights of holders of that preferred stock. This right is in addition to any voting rights that may be provided for in the applicable certificate of designation.

Economic Rights. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will rank, with respect to dividends and upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up:

 

   

senior to all classes or series of our common stock and to all of our equity securities ranking junior to the preferred stock;

 

   

on a parity with all of our equity securities the terms of which specifically provide that the equity securities rank on a parity with the preferred stock; and

 

   

junior to all of our equity securities the terms of which specifically provide that the equity securities rank senior to the preferred stock.

The term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities.

Fully Paid and Non-Assessable. When we issue shares of preferred stock under this prospectus, the shares will be fully paid and nonassessable.

Registration Rights

Subject to federal securities laws, certain holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to certain rights with respect to registration of such shares under the Securities Act. These shares are referred to as registrable securities. The holders of these registrable securities possess registration rights pursuant to the terms of our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement and are described in additional detail below. The registration of shares of our common stock pursuant to the exercise of the registration rights described below would enable the holders to trade these shares without restriction under the Securities Act when the applicable registration statement is declared effective. We will pay the registration expenses, other than underwriting discounts, selling commissions and stock transfer taxes, of the shares registered pursuant to the demand, piggyback and Form S-3 registrations described below.

Generally, in an underwritten offering, the managing underwriter, if any, has the right, subject to specified conditions and limitations, to limit the number of shares the holders may include. The demand, piggyback and Form S-3 registration rights described below will expire no later than three years after the closing of the company’s initial public offering.

Certain holders of our common stock are entitled to certain demand registration rights. The holders of 40% of these shares may request that we register all or a portion of their shares. We are not required to effect more than two registration statements which are declared or ordered effective. Such request for registration must cover shares with an anticipated aggregate offering price of at least $35 million.

Additionally, certain holders of shares of our common stock were entitled to, and the necessary percentage of holders waived, their rights to notice of this offering and to include their shares of registrable securities in this offering. After this offering, in the event that we propose to register any of our securities under the Securities Act, either for our own account or for the account of other security holders, the holders of these shares will be

 

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entitled to certain piggyback registration rights allowing the holder to include their shares in such registration, subject to certain marketing and other limitations.

Further, certain holders of shares of common stock will be entitled to certain Form S-3 registration rights. Holders of 20% of these shares can make a request that we register their shares on Form S-3 if we are qualified to file a registration statement on Form S-3 and if the reasonably anticipated aggregate net proceeds of the shares offered would equal or exceed $20 million. We will not be required to effect more than two registrations on Form S-3 within any 12-month period.

Anti-Takeover Provisions

The provisions of Delaware law, our Restated Certificate and our Bylaws, which are summarized below, may have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of our company. They are also designed, in part, to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate first with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with an unfriendly or unsolicited acquirer outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging a proposal to acquire us because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

Restated Certificate and Bylaws

Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, stockholders holding a majority of the voting power of our shares of common stock will be able to elect all of our directors. Our Restated Certificate and our Bylaws provide that all stockholder actions be taken at a duly called meeting of stockholders or, before the date on which all shares of common stock convert into a single class, by written consent. A special meeting of stockholders may be called by a majority of our board of directors, the chair of our board of directors, or our chief executive officer or president. Our Bylaws require an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of our stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors. In addition, our board of directors is divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms.

The foregoing provisions will make it more difficult for another party to obtain control of us by replacing our board of directors. Since our board of directors has the power to retain and discharge our officers, these provisions could also make it more difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management. In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change our control.

These provisions are designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited acquisition proposal and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in our control or management. As a consequence, these provisions may also inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our stock that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts.

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law

So long as we have a class of voting stock that is either listed on a national securities exchange or held of record by more than 2,000 stockholders, we are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, subject to certain exceptions.

 

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Choice of Forum

Our Restated Certificate provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if and only if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware lacks subject matter jurisdiction, any state court located within the State of Delaware or, if and only if all such state courts lack subject matter jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) and any appellate court therefrom is the sole and exclusive forum for the following claims or causes of action under the Delaware statutory or common law: (i) any derivative claim or cause of action brought on our behalf; (ii) any claim or cause of action for a breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders; (iii) any claim or cause of action against us or any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees arising out of or pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, our Restated Certificate or our Bylaws (as each may be amended from time to time); (iv) any claim or cause of action seeking to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our Restated Certificate or our Bylaws (as each may be amended from time to time, including any right, obligation, or remedy thereunder); (v) any claim or cause of action as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware; and (vi) any claim or cause of action against us or any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees governed by the internal-affairs doctrine, in all cases to the fullest extent permitted by law and subject to the court’s having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants. Our Restated Certificate further provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause or causes of action arising under the Securities Act, including all causes of action asserted against an defendant to such complaint. The choice of forum provisions would not apply to claims or causes of action brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction.

For the avoidance of doubt, these provisions are intended to benefit and may be enforced by us, our officers and directors, the underwriters to any offering giving rise to such complaint and any other professional entity whose profession gives authority to a statement made by that person or entity and who has prepared or certified any part of the documents underlying the offering. While the Delaware courts have determined that such choice of forum provisions are facially valid, a stockholder may nevertheless seek to bring a claim in a venue other than those designated in the exclusive forum provisions, and there can be no assurance that such provisions will be enforced by a court in those other jurisdictions. We note that investors cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.

Additionally, our Restated Certificate provides that any person or entity holding, owning or otherwise acquiring any interest in any of our securities shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to these provisions. These choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or any of our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders, which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims, although our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.

Limitation of Liability and Indemnification Matters

Our Restated Certificate contains provisions that limit the liability of our directors for monetary damages to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. Consequently, our directors will not be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duties as directors, except liability for:

 

   

any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

 

   

any act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

   

unlawful payments of dividends or unlawful stock repurchases or redemptions as provided in Section 174 of the DGCL; or

 

   

any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

 

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Such limitation of liability does not apply to liabilities arising under federal securities laws and does not affect the availability of equitable remedies such as injunctive relief or rescission.

Our Restated Certificate authorizes us to indemnify our directors, officers, employees and other agents to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. Each of our Restated Certificate and Bylaws provide that we are required to indemnify our directors and officers, in each case to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law and may indemnify our other employees and agents. Our Bylaws also obligate us to advance expenses incurred by a director or officer in advance of the final disposition of any action or proceeding, and permit us to secure insurance on behalf of any officer, director, employee or other agent for any liability arising out of his or her actions in that capacity regardless of whether we would otherwise be permitted to indemnify him or her under Delaware law. We have entered and expect to continue to enter into agreements to indemnify our directors, executive officers and other employees as determined by our board of directors. With specified exceptions, these agreements provide for indemnification for related expenses including, among other things, attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by any of these individuals in any action or proceeding. We believe that these bylaw provisions and indemnification agreements are necessary to attract and retain qualified persons as directors and officers. We also maintain directors’ and officers’ liability insurance.

The limitation of liability and indemnification provisions in our Restated Certificate and Bylaws may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against our directors and officers for breach of their fiduciary duty. They may also reduce the likelihood of derivative litigation against our directors and officers, even though an action, if successful, might benefit us and our stockholders. Further, a stockholder’s investment may be adversely affected to the extent that we pay the costs of settlement and damages.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC. The transfer agent’s address is 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11219. The transfer agent for any series of preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus will be named and described in the prospectus supplement related to that series.

Listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “LYEL.” The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or any securities market or other exchange of the preferred stock covered by such prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the Trust Indenture Act). We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

General

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount” (OID) for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

   

the title of the series of debt securities;

 

   

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

 

   

the maturity date or dates;

 

   

the form of the debt securities of the series;

 

   

the applicability of any guarantees;

 

   

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

   

whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

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if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

   

the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

   

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

   

if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

   

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

   

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

   

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

 

   

whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities, and the depositary for such global security or securities;

 

   

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

 

   

if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

   

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

   

additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

 

   

additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

   

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

 

   

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

   

the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

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whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any, and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal income tax purposes;

 

   

a discussion of any material or special United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the debt securities of the series;

 

   

any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

Events of Default under the Indenture

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

   

if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

   

if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

   

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

   

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

 

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If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

   

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

   

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

   

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request,

 

   

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

 

   

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

 

   

to comply with the provisions described above under the section titled “Description of Debt Securities—Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

 

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to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

 

   

to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

 

   

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under the section titled “Description of Debt Securities—General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

 

   

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

   

extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

 

   

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or

 

   

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

Discharge

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

   

provide for payment;

 

   

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

   

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

   

pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

 

   

maintain paying agencies;

 

   

hold monies for payment in trust;

 

   

recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

   

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

   

appoint any successor trustee.

 

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In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

Form, Exchange and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company (DTC), or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

   

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

   

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

Information Concerning the Trustee

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

 

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Payment and Paying Agents

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements and in any related free writing prospectuses that we may authorize to be distributed to you, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be offered independently or in combination with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The following description of warrants will apply to the warrants offered by this prospectus unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement for a particular series of warrants may specify different or additional terms.

We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that describe the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the warrants are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of warrants that we or selling securityholders may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement related to the particular series of warrants that we or selling securityholders may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses, and the complete form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements, that contain the terms of the warrants.

General

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants being offered, including:

 

   

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

   

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

 

   

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

   

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

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the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

 

   

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

   

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture; or

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any.

Exercise of Warrants

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. The warrants may be exercised as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, warrants may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered thereby. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

Upon receipt of payment and the warrant or warrant certificate, as applicable, properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office, including ours, indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If less than all of the warrants (or the warrants represented by such warrant certificate) are exercised, a new warrant or a new warrant certificate, as applicable, will be issued for the remaining warrants.

Governing Law

Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and any warrant agreements will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

Each warrant agent, if any, will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

 

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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee, depositary or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

Book-Entry Holders

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Securities issued in global form will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for securities issued in global form, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

As a result, investors in a book-entry security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not holders, of the securities.

Street Name Holders

We may terminate a global security or issue securities in non-global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

For securities held in street name, we will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

Legal Holders

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee and of any third parties employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

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For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with depositary participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of the indenture or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the holders contact the indirect holders is up to the holders.

Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

   

how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

   

whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

   

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

   

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

   

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

   

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

Global Securities

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, DTC will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under the section titled “Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated” in this prospectus. As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued in global form only, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

 

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Special Considerations for Global Securities

The rights of an indirect holder relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

If securities are issued only in the form of a global security, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

   

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;

 

   

an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

 

   

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

 

   

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in a global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

   

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in a global security;

 

   

we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in a global security, nor do we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

 

   

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in a global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and

 

   

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in a global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

In a few special situations described below, the global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own name, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

   

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

   

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

   

if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

 

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The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and not we or any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

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SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

Selling securityholders are persons or entities that, directly or indirectly, have acquired or will from time to time acquire from us, our securities. If the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part is used by selling securityholders for the resale of any securities registered thereunder pursuant to a registration rights agreement between us and such selling securityholders or otherwise, information about such selling securityholders, their beneficial ownership of our securities and their relationship with us will be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We or selling securityholders may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, direct sales to the public, “at-the-market” offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We or selling securityholders may sell the securities to or through one or more underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly (acting as principal or agent), to one or more purchasers. We or selling securityholders may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

the name or names of the underwriters dealers or agents, if any;

 

   

the name or names of the selling securityholders, if any;

 

   

the purchase price of the securities or other consideration therefor, and the proceeds, if any, we will receive from the sale;

 

   

any options to purchase additional shares or other options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us or any selling securityholders;

 

   

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

   

any public offering price;

 

   

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement will be underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement. Dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and compensation received by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts. If such dealers or agents were deemed to be underwriters, they may be subject to statutory liabilities under the Securities Act.

If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We or selling securityholders may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement, other than securities covered by any option to purchase additional shares. If a dealer is used in the sale of securities, we, a selling securityholder, or an underwriter will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale. To the extent required, we will set forth in the prospectus supplement the name of the dealer and the terms of the transaction. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We or selling securityholders may use underwriters, dealers or agents with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, dealer or agent and the nature of any such relationship.

 

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We or selling securityholders may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities and we will describe any commissions payable to the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

We may authorize underwriters, dealers or agents to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

We may provide underwriters, dealers or agents with indemnification against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the underwriters, dealers or agents may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents and underwriters, dealers or agents or their affiliates may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

Selling securityholders may be deemed to be underwriters under the Securities Act in connection with the securities they resell and any profits on the sales may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act.

All securities we may offer, other than common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.

Any underwriters may be granted an option to purchase additional shares and may engage in stabilizing transactions, short-covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act. An underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum price. Syndicate-covering or other short-covering transactions involve purchases of the securities, either through exercise of the option to purchase additional shares or in the open market after the distribution is completed, to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time.

Any underwriters, dealers or agents that are qualified market makers on the Nasdaq Global Select Market may engage in passive market making transactions in the common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the common stock. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

In compliance with guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), the maximum consideration or discount to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker dealer may not exceed 8% of the aggregate amount of the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, Cooley LLP will pass upon the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus, and any supplement thereto. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of the registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act and does not contain all the information set forth or incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus to any of our contracts, agreements or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statement or the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus for a copy of such contract, agreement or other document. Because we are subject to the information and reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference information from other documents that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus and the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the information or documents listed below that we have filed with the SEC (Commission File No. 001-40502):

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 29, 2022;

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A, which was filed with the SEC on April 28, 2022;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on May  10, 2022, and the quarter ended June 30, 2022, filed with the SEC on August 4, 2022;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on February 15, 2022 and June 13, 2022; and

 

   

the description of our common stock set forth in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on June 14, 2021, including all amendments and reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

 

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We also incorporate by reference any future filings (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items unless such Form 8-K expressly provides to the contrary) made with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act until we file a post-effective amendment that indicates the termination of the offering of the securities made by this prospectus, which will become a part of this prospectus from the date that such documents are filed with the SEC. Information in such future filings updates and supplements the information provided in this prospectus. Any statements in any such future filings will automatically be deemed to modify and supersede any information in any document we previously filed with the SEC that is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated herein by reference to the extent that statements in the later-filed document modify or replace such earlier statements. We will furnish without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits that are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents to:

LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC.

Attn: Chief Financial Officer

201 Haskins Way

South San Francisco, CA 94080

(650) 695-0677

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

$200,000,000

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

We have entered into an equity distribution agreement with Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc., relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus supplement. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, from time to time, having an aggregate offering price of up to $200,000,000 through or to Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc. acting as sales agents or principals.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbol “LYEL.” On August 1, 2022, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $5.54 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act) or by any other method permitted by law. Subject to the terms of the equity distribution agreement, Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc. are not required to sell any specific number or dollar amounts of securities but will act as sales agents and use commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Goldman Sachs & Co. and/or BofA Securities, Inc. and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Pursuant to the terms of the equity distribution agreement, Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc. will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate of up to 3% of the aggregate gross sales price per share sold under the equity distribution agreement. In connection with the sale of our common stock on our behalf, Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc. may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of paid to Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc. may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts.

 

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, please read the information contained in and incorporated by reference under the section titled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 4 of this prospectus supplement and under similar headings in the other documents that we have filed or that are filed after the date hereof and incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC   BofA Securities  

The date of this prospectus is August 4, 2022.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     S-i  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     S-1  

RISK FACTORS

     S-4  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-8  

DILUTION

     S-9  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     S-11  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     S-16  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-17  

EXPERTS

     S-17  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     S-17  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     S-17  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC), utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under the shelf registration statement we may offer shares of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and warrants, including common stock or preferred stock upon conversion of debt securities, common stock upon conversion of preferred stock, or common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants. Under this prospectus, we may offer shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $200,000,000 from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering. We provide information to you about this offering of shares of our common stock in two separate documents that are bound together: (1) this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific details regarding this offering; and (2) the accompanying base prospectus, which provides general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. Generally, when we refer to this “prospectus,” we are referring to both documents combined.

This prospectus relates to the offering of our common stock. Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus, together with the information incorporated by reference as described in the section titled “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus and the information in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

This prospectus describes the specific terms of the common stock we are offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. We have not, and Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc. have not, authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We, Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc. take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and in

 

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any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents, regardless of the time of delivery of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections of this prospectus titled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.”

We, Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc. are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus and the offering of our common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of our common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

We obtained the industry and market data in this prospectus from our own research as well as from industry and general publications, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. These data involve a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. In addition, projections, assumptions and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the industry in which we operate is necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus and documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference herein were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

This prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or others. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully this entire prospectus, the information incorporated by reference herein and the information included in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, including the information referred to in the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this prospectus to “Lyell Immunopharma,” “Lyell,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Lyell Immunopharma, Inc.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage T-cell reprogramming company dedicated to developing curative cell therapies for patients with solid tumors. We take a systematic, interrogative, cell biology-driven approach to overcome what we view as the two major barriers to successful Adoptive Cell Therapy (ACT)—(1) T-cell exhaustion and (2) lack of durable stemness—through the application of our proprietary ex vivo genetic and epigenetic reprogramming technologies, Gen-R and Epi-R. Gen-R is designed to overcome loss of T-cell function attributable to an exhausted state, and Epi-R is designed to create T-cell populations with properties of durable stemness. T cells with properties of durable stemness are able to proliferate, persist and self-renew, as well as generate differentiated effector cell progenies to provide durable anti-tumor functionality.

Our technologies are designed to be applied in a target and modality agnostic manner to chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and T-cell receptor (TCR) therapies to fundamentally improve the properties of T cells needed to eradicate solid tumors. We believe our autologous T-cell therapies will generate improved, durable clinical outcomes that are potentially curative for patients with solid tumors. We are building a multi-modality product pipeline across several solid tumor indications with high unmet needs.

We are advancing a product pipeline of promising living cell product candidates across multiple ACT modalities that incorporate our Gen-R and Epi-R technology platforms. We are applying our Gen-R and Epi-R technology platforms to our lead CAR T-cell product candidate, LYL797, which is expected to be an IV administered CAR T-cell product targeting receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1). We are initially developing LYL797 for the treatment of ROR1+ triple-negative breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. We are applying our Epi-R technology to develop our product candidate, LYL845, which is expected to be an IV administered autologous TIL therapy in multiple solid tumors. Each of our programs provide opportunities to expand into additional indications beyond the patient populations we are initially targeting.

We were incorporated in June 2018. Our primary activities to date have included developing T-cell therapies, performing research and development, acquiring technology, entering into strategic collaboration and license agreements, building manufacturing capability, enabling and executing manufacturing activities in support of our product candidate development efforts, organizing and staffing the company, business planning, establishing our intellectual property portfolio, preparing for and initiating clinical trials, raising capital and providing general and administrative support for these activities. We are early in our research and development efforts and just beginning clinical development of our product candidates. Besides LYL797 and LYL132 (NY-ESO-1 + Epi-R), all of our other product candidates are currently in preclinical development. We also do not have any products approved for sale.

 

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Corporate Information

We were founded in June 2018 as a Delaware corporation. Our principal executive offices are located at 201 Haskins Way, South San Francisco, California 94080 and our telephone number is (650) 695-0677. Our website address is www.lyell.com. Information found on, or accessible through, our website is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus. Our website address is included in this prospectus as an inactive textual reference only.

 

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The Offering

 

Common stock offered by us

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $200,000,000.

 

Common stock to be outstanding after this offering

Up to 283,860,971 (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 36,101,083 shares of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of $5.54 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on August 1, 2022. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.

 

Manner of offering

From time to time by us through or to Goldman and BofA, acting as agents on our behalf or a principal, including “at-the-market” offerings, as applicable. See section titled “Plan of Distribution” on page S-16.

 

Use of Proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital and general corporate purposes, including research and development expenses and capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds and our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities to in-license, acquire, or invest in complementary businesses, technology platforms, products or assets. However, we have no current commitments or obligations to do so. See the section titled “Use of Proceeds” on page S-8.

 

Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves significant risks. Before making an investment decision, please read the information contained in the section titled “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-4 of this prospectus and under similar headings in the other documents that we have filed or that are filed after the date hereof and incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

The Nasdaq Global Select Market Symbol

“LYEL”

The above discussion of shares outstanding is based on 247,759,888 shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2022, and excludes the following, all as of June 30, 2022:

 

   

47,547,798 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options with a weighted-average exercise price of $5.34 per share;

 

   

1,245,015 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding restricted stock units;

 

   

up to an aggregate of 27,808,498 shares of common stock available for future grant under our 2021 Equity Incentive Plan; and

 

   

up to an aggregate of 4,639,809 shares of common stock available for future grant under our 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our common stock, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below and discussed under the section titled “Risk Factors” contained in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2022, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, as updated or superseded by the risks and uncertainties described under similar headings in the other documents that are filed after the date hereof and incorporated by reference into this prospectus, together with the other information in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. The risks described in these documents are not the only ones we face, but those that we consider to be material. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on our future results. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also read carefully the section below titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Additional Risks Related to This Offering

Management will have broad discretion as to the use of the net proceeds from this offering, and may not use the proceeds effectively.

Because we have not designated the amount of net proceeds from this offering to be used for any particular purpose, our management will have broad discretion as to the application of any net proceeds from this offering and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of the offering. Our management may use any net proceeds for corporate purposes that may not improve our financial condition or market value. If our management applies these proceeds in a manner that does not yield a significant return, if any, on our investment of these net proceeds, it could compromise our ability to pursue our growth strategy and adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

It is not possible to predict the aggregate proceeds resulting from sales made under the equity distribution agreement.

Subject to certain limitations in the equity distribution agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc., at any time throughout the term of the equity distribution agreement. The number of shares that are sold through the sales agents after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on a number of factors, including the market price of our common stock during the sales period, any limits we may set with the sales agents in any applicable placement notice and the demand for our common stock. Because the price per share of each share sold pursuant to the equity distribution agreement will fluctuate over time, it is not currently possible to predict the aggregate proceeds to be raised in connection with sales under the equity distribution agreement.

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution as a result of this offering.

The offering price per share of our common stock in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 36,101,083 shares of our common stock are sold in this offering, based on an assumed sale price of $5.54 per share, the last sale price of a share of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on August 1, 2022, for aggregate gross proceeds of $200,000,000, and, after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, you will experience immediate dilution of $1.80 per share, representing the difference between the price you pay and our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2022, after giving effect to this offering, and the assumed public offering price. The exercise of outstanding stock options may result in further dilution of your investment. See the section titled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you may incur if you participate in this offering.

 

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The actual number of shares of common stock we will issue under the equity distribution agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

Subject to certain limitations in the equity distribution agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver an issuance notice to Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc. at any time throughout the term of the equity distribution agreement. The number of shares of common stock that are sold by Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc. after delivering an issuance notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the shares of common stock during the sales period and limits we set with Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc. Because the price per share of each share of common stock sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our shares of common stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares of common stock that will be ultimately issued.

We do not intend to pay dividends in the foreseeable future.

We have never paid cash dividends on our common stock and currently do not plan to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

To raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in an offering pursuant to the equity distribution agreement. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in an offering pursuant to the equity distribution agreement, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

Sales of common stock offered hereby will be in “at the market offerings,” and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and accordingly may experience different levels of dilution and different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices and number of shares sold in this offering. In addition, subject to the final determination by our board of directors or any restrictions we may place in any applicable placement notice delivered to the sales agents, there is no minimum or maximum sales price for shares to be sold in this offering. Investors may experience a decline in the value of the shares they purchase in this offering as a result of sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act). These statements relate to our future events, including our anticipated operations, research, development and commercialization activities, clinical trials, operating results and financial condition. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

the sufficiency of our existing cash to fund our future operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements;

 

   

the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, revenue opportunities, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

the scope, progress, results and costs of developing LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, and conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials, including for LYL797 and LYL845;

 

   

the timing and costs involved in obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, and the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, including our expectation to seek special designations for our product candidates for various diseases;

 

   

our expectations regarding GlaxoSmithKline’s (GSK) plans for the NY-ESO-1 programs;

 

   

our plans relating to commercializing LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, if approved, including the geographic areas of focus and our ability to grow a sales force;

 

   

the size of the market opportunity for LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop in each of the diseases we target;

 

   

our reliance on third parties to conduct preclinical research activities for LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop;

 

   

the characteristics, safety, efficacy and therapeutic effects of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop;

 

   

our estimates of the number of patients in the United States who suffer from the diseases we target and the number of subjects that will enroll in our clinical trials;

 

   

the progress and focus of our and GSK’s current and planned clinical trials of our product candidates, and the reporting of data from those trials, including the timing thereof;

 

   

the ability of our clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, and other positive results;

 

   

the success of competing therapies that are, or may become, available;

 

   

developments relating to our competitors and our industry, including competing product candidates and therapies;

 

   

our plans relating to the further development and manufacturing of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, including additional indications that we may pursue;

 

   

existing regulations and regulatory developments in the United States and other jurisdictions;

 

   

our potential and ability to successfully manufacture and supply LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop for clinical trials and for commercial use, if approved;

 

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the rate and degree of market acceptance of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, as well as the pricing and reimbursement of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, if approved;

 

   

our continued reliance on third parties to conduct additional clinical trials of LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop, and for the manufacture of our product candidates;

 

   

the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights, including LYL797, LYL845 or any other product candidates we may develop;

 

   

our ability to retain the continued service of our key personnel and to identify, hire and then retain additional qualified personnel;

 

   

our expectations regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and operations, including clinical trials, manufacturing suppliers, collaborators, use of contract research organizations and employees;

 

   

our expectations regarding the period during which we will qualify as an emerging growth company under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012; and

 

   

our intended use of the net proceeds from this offering.

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by use of future dates or by terms such as: “anticipates,” “believes,” “continues,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “seeks,” “should,” “will,” “likely,” “ongoing,” “project,” “assume,” “target,” “forecast,” “guidance,” “objective,” “aim,” “goal” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events, are based on assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties. Given these assumptions, risks and uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We cannot guarantee that any forward-looking statement will be realized. We discuss in greater detail, and incorporate by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, many of these risks and uncertainties under the section titled “Risk Factors” contained on page S-4 of this prospectus, in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2022, which is incorporated herein by reference, as may be updated or superseded by the risks and uncertainties described under similar headings in the other documents that are filed after the date hereof and incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Also, these forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of the document containing the applicable statement. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information or future events or developments. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements. You should carefully read this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference as described in the section titled “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in the foregoing documents by these cautionary statements.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $200,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required pursuant to the equity distribution agreement, with Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc., the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. Actual net proceeds will depend on the number of shares we sell and the prices at which such sales occur. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the equity distribution agreement with Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc. as a source of financing.

We intend to use any net proceeds from the sale of the common stock offered by us hereunder for working capital and general corporate purposes, including research and development expenses and capital expenditures.

We may also use a portion of the net proceeds and our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities to in-license, acquire, or invest in complementary businesses, technology platforms, products or assets. However, we have no current commitments or obligations to do so.

The amounts and timing of our use of any net proceeds from this offering will depend on a number of factors, such as the timing and progress of our research and development efforts, the timing and progress of any partnering efforts, technological advances and the competitive environment for our products. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us from the sale of the securities offered by us hereunder. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds and investors will be relying upon the judgment of our management regarding the application of these proceeds. We reserve the right to change the use of these proceeds.

Pending application of any net proceeds as described above, we intend to temporarily invest the proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing instruments.

 

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DILUTION

We calculate net tangible book value per share by dividing the net tangible book value, which is tangible assets less total liabilities, by the number of outstanding shares of our common stock. Dilution represents the difference between the portion of the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares in an offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after giving effect to such an offering.

Our net tangible book value as of June 30, 2022, was approximately $867.4 million, or $3.50 per share. Net tangible book value is total assets minus the sum of liabilities and intangible assets. Net tangible book value per share is net tangible book value divided by the total number of shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2022.

After giving effect to the sale of up to 36,101,083 shares of our common stock in an offering pursuant to the equity distribution agreement at an assumed public offering price of $5.54 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on August 1, 2022, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2022 would have been approximately $1,060.6 million, or $3.74 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.24 per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution of $1.80 per share to investors purchasing our common stock in such an offering at the assumed public offering price. The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

 

Assumed offering price per share

      $ 5.54  

Net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2022

   $ 3.50     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors in offering

   $ 0.24     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2022, after giving effect to this offering

      $ 3.74  
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors purchasing shares in this offering

      $ 1.80  

The shares subject to the equity distribution agreement with Goldman and BofA are being sold from time to time at various prices. A $0.50 increase in the assumed public offering price of $5.54 per share, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $200,000,000 during the term of the equity distribution agreement with Goldman and BofA is sold at that price, would increase our as adjusted net tangible book value per share to $3.78 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors to $2.26 per share, after deducting the commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. A $0.50 decrease in the assumed public offering price of $5.54 per share, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $200,000,000 during the term of the equity distribution agreement with Goldman and BofA is sold at that price, would decrease our as adjusted net tangible book value per share to $3.69 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors to $1.35 per share, after deducting the commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. The information discussed above is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual offering prices and the actual number of shares issue and sold pursuant to the equity distribution agreement with Goldman and BofA.

The above discussion of shares outstanding is based on 247,759,888 shares of common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2022, and excludes the following, all as of June 30, 2022:

 

   

47,547,798 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options with a weighted-average exercise price of $ 5.34 per share;

 

   

1,245,015 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding restricted stock units;

 

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up to an aggregate of 27,808,498 shares of common stock available for future grant under our 2021 Equity Incentive Plan; and

 

   

up to an aggregate of 4,639,809 shares of common stock available for future grant under our 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.

To the extent that options outstanding as of June 30, 2022, have been or are exercised, or restricted stock units vest or other shares are issued, investors purchasing shares in an offering pursuant to the equity distribution agreement could experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to investors in an offering pursuant to the equity distribution agreement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

As of the date of this prospectus, our amended and restated certificate of corporation (the Restated Certificate) our authorized capital stock consists of 500,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share. All of our authorized shares of preferred stock will be undesignated.

This information may not be complete in all respects and is qualified entirely by reference to the provisions of the Restated Certificate, our amended and restated bylaws (Bylaws), our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement and the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware. For information on how to obtain copies of the Restated Certificate, our Bylaws and our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, which are exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, see the section titled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Common Stock

Voting Rights. The common stock is entitled to one vote per share on any matter that is submitted to a vote of our stockholders. Our Restated Certificate does not provide for cumulative voting for the election of directors. Our Restated Certificate establishes a classified board of directors that is divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only the directors in one class will be subject to election by a plurality of the votes cast at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the directors in the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms. The affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of capital stock, voting as a single class, will be required to amend certain provisions of our Restated Certificate, including provisions relating to amending our Bylaws, the classified structure of our board of directors, the size of our board of directors, removal of directors, director liability, vacancies on our board of directors, special meetings, stockholder notices, actions by written consent and exclusive jurisdiction.

Economic Rights. Except as otherwise expressly provided in our Restated Certificate or required by applicable law, all shares of common stock will have the same rights and privileges and rank equally, share ratably and be identical in all respects for all matters, including those described below.

 

   

Dividends. Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of funds legally available if our board of directors, in its discretion, determines to issue dividends and then only at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine.

 

   

Liquidation Rights. On our liquidation, dissolution, or winding-up, the holders of common stock will be entitled to share equally, identically and ratably in all assets remaining after the payment of any liabilities, liquidation preferences and accrued or declared but unpaid dividends, if any, with respect to any outstanding preferred stock, unless a different treatment is approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of such affected class, voting separately as a class.

No Preemptive or Similar Rights. The holders of our shares of common stock are not entitled to preemptive rights, and are not subject to conversion, redemption or sinking fund provisions.

Fully Paid and Non-Assessable. When we issue shares of common stock under this prospectus, the shares will be fully paid and non-assessable.

Preferred Stock

Under the Restated Certificate, our board of directors will have the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each such series, to fix the rights, preferences and privileges of the

 

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shares of each wholly unissued series and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereon and to increase or decrease the number of shares of any such series, but not below the number of shares of such series then outstanding. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of the common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in our control that may otherwise benefit holders of our common stock and may adversely affect the market price of the common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of common stock.

Registration Rights

Subject to federal securities laws, certain holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to certain rights with respect to registration of such shares under the Securities Act. These shares are referred to as registrable securities. The holders of these registrable securities possess registration rights pursuant to the terms of our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement and are described in additional detail below. The registration of shares of our common stock pursuant to the exercise of the registration rights described below would enable the holders to trade these shares without restriction under the Securities Act when the applicable registration statement is declared effective. We will pay the registration expenses, other than underwriting discounts, selling commissions and stock transfer taxes, of the shares registered pursuant to the demand, piggyback and Form S-3 registrations described below.

Generally, in an underwritten offering, the managing underwriter, if any, has the right, subject to specified conditions and limitations, to limit the number of shares the holders may include. The demand, piggyback and Form S-3 registration rights described below will expire no later than three years after the closing of the company’s initial public offering.

Certain holders of our common stock are entitled to certain demand registration rights. The holders of 40% of these shares may request that we register all or a portion of their shares. We are not required to effect more than two registration statements which are declared or ordered effective. Such request for registration must cover shares with an anticipated aggregate offering price of at least $35 million.

Additionally, certain holders of shares of our common stock were entitled to, and the necessary percentage of holders waived, their rights to notice of this offering and to include their shares of registrable securities in this offering. After this offering, in the event that we propose to register any of our securities under the Securities Act, either for our own account or for the account of other security holders, the holders of these shares will be entitled to certain piggyback registration rights allowing the holder to include their shares in such registration, subject to certain marketing and other limitations.

Further, certain holders of shares of common stock will be entitled to certain Form S-3 registration rights. Holders of 20% of these shares can make a request that we register their shares on Form S-3 if we are qualified to file a registration statement on Form S-3 and if the reasonably anticipated aggregate net proceeds of the shares offered would equal or exceed $20 million. We will not be required to effect more than two registrations on Form S-3 within any 12-month period.

Anti-Takeover Provisions

The provisions of Delaware law, our Restated Certificate and our Bylaws, which are summarized below, may have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of our company. They are also designed, in part, to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate first with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with an unfriendly or unsolicited acquirer outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging a proposal to acquire us because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

 

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Restated Certificate and Bylaws

Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, stockholders holding a majority of the voting power of our shares of common stock will be able to elect all of our directors. Our Restated Certificate and our Bylaws provide that all stockholder actions be taken at a duly called meeting of stockholders or, before the date on which all shares of common stock convert into a single class, by written consent. A special meeting of stockholders may be called by a majority of our board of directors, the chair of our board of directors, or our chief executive officer or president. Our Bylaws require an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of our stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors. In addition, our board of directors is divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms.

The foregoing provisions will make it more difficult for another party to obtain control of us by replacing our board of directors. Since our board of directors has the power to retain and discharge our officers, these provisions could also make it more difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management. In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change our control.

These provisions are designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited acquisition proposal and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in our control or management. As a consequence, these provisions may also inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our stock that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts.

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law

So long as we have a class of voting stock that is either listed on a national securities exchange or held of record by more than 2,000 stockholders, we are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, subject to certain exceptions.

Choice of Forum

Our Restated Certificate provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if and only if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware lacks subject matter jurisdiction, any state court located within the State of Delaware or, if and only if all such state courts lack subject matter jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) and any appellate court therefrom is the sole and exclusive forum for the following claims or causes of action under the Delaware statutory or common law: (i) any derivative claim or cause of action brought on our behalf; (ii) any claim or cause of action for a breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders; (iii) any claim or cause of action against us or any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees arising out of or pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, our Restated Certificate or our Bylaws (as each may be amended from time to time); (iv) any claim or cause of action seeking to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our Restated Certificate or our Bylaws (as each may be amended from time to time, including any right, obligation, or remedy thereunder); (v) any claim or cause of action as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware; and (vi) any claim or cause of action against us or any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees governed by the internal-affairs doctrine, in all cases to the fullest extent permitted by law and subject to the court’s having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants. Our Restated Certificate further provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause or causes of action arising under the Securities Act, including all causes of action

 

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asserted against an defendant to such complaint. The choice of forum provisions would not apply to claims or causes of action brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction.

For the avoidance of doubt, these provisions are intended to benefit and may be enforced by us, our officers and directors, the underwriters to any offering giving rise to such complaint and any other professional entity whose profession gives authority to a statement made by that person or entity and who has prepared or certified any part of the documents underlying the offering. While the Delaware courts have determined that such choice of forum provisions are facially valid, a stockholder may nevertheless seek to bring a claim in a venue other than those designated in the exclusive forum provisions, and there can be no assurance that such provisions will be enforced by a court in those other jurisdictions. We note that investors cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.

Additionally, our Restated Certificate provides that any person or entity holding, owning or otherwise acquiring any interest in any of our securities shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to these provisions. These choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or any of our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders, which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims, although our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.

Limitation of Liability and Indemnification Matters

Our Restated Certificate contains provisions that limit the liability of our directors for monetary damages to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. Consequently, our directors will not be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duties as directors, except liability for:

 

   

any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

 

   

any act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

   

unlawful payments of dividends or unlawful stock repurchases or redemptions as provided in Section 174 of the DGCL; or

 

   

any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

Such limitation of liability does not apply to liabilities arising under federal securities laws and does not affect the availability of equitable remedies such as injunctive relief or rescission.

Our Restated Certificate authorizes us to indemnify our directors, officers, employees and other agents to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. Each of our Restated Certificate and Bylaws provide that we are required to indemnify our directors and officers, in each case to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law and may indemnify our other employees and agents. Our Bylaws also obligate us to advance expenses incurred by a director or officer in advance of the final disposition of any action or proceeding, and permit us to secure insurance on behalf of any officer, director, employee or other agent for any liability arising out of his or her actions in that capacity regardless of whether we would otherwise be permitted to indemnify him or her under Delaware law. We have entered and expect to continue to enter into agreements to indemnify our directors, executive officers and other employees as determined by our board of directors. With specified exceptions, these agreements provide for indemnification for related expenses including, among other things, attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by any of these individuals in any action or proceeding. We believe that these bylaw provisions and indemnification agreements are necessary to attract and retain qualified persons as directors and officers. We also maintain directors’ and officers’ liability insurance.

The limitation of liability and indemnification provisions in our Restated Certificate and Bylaws may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against our directors and officers for breach of their fiduciary duty. They may also reduce the likelihood of derivative litigation against our directors and officers, even though

 

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an action, if successful, might benefit us and our stockholders. Further, a stockholder’s investment may be adversely affected to the extent that we pay the costs of settlement and damages.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC. The transfer agent’s address is 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11219.

Listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “LYEL.”

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into an equity distribution agreement with Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc., as our sales agents, under which we may offer and sell from time to time our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $200,000,000. The sales agents may act as agents on our behalf or purchase shares of our common stock as principal.

Sales, if any, of common stock under the equity distribution agreement may be made in ordinary brokers’ transactions, to or through a market maker, on or through the Nasdaq Global Select Market or any other market venue where the securities may be traded, in the over-the-counter market, in privately negotiated transactions, or through a combination of any such methods of sale. The sales agents may also sell our common stock by any other method permitted by law.

The securities may be sold at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to such prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices.

We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through the sales agents on a daily basis or otherwise as we and the sales agents agree and the minimum price per share at which such common stock may be sold. Subject to the terms and conditions of the equity distribution agreement, the sales agents will use their commercially reasonable efforts consistent with their normal sales and trading practices to sell on our behalf all of the designated shares of common stock. We may instruct the sales agents not to sell any common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. We or any sales agent, with respect to itself only, may suspend the offering of our common stock by notifying the other party.

The sales agents will provide to us written confirmation following the close of trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market each day on which shares of common stock are sold under the equity distribution agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold on such day, the gross sales proceeds and the compensation payable by us to the sales agents. We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through the sales agents under the equity distribution agreement, the net proceeds to us (before expenses) and the compensation paid by us to the sales agents in connection with the sales of the shares of common stock.

We will pay each sales agent a commission of up to 3% of the gross sales price per share of common stock sold through such agent under the equity distribution agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse the sales agents for certain of their expenses.

Settlement of any sales of common stock will occur on the third business day following the date on which such sales were made (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading). There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus supplement will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and the sales agents may agree.

The offering of our common stock pursuant to the equity distribution agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the sale of all of our shares of common stock subject to the equity distribution agreement, or (ii) termination of the equity distribution agreement by us or by the sales agents as provided therein.

In connection with the sale of the shares of common stock on our behalf, each of the sales agents may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to each of the sales agents may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts.

We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the several sales agents against certain liabilities, including civil liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Cooley LLP, San Francisco, California, has passed upon the validity of the shares of our common stock offered hereby. Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc. are being represented by Latham  & Watkins LLP in connection with the offering.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of the registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act and does not contain all the information set forth or incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus to any of our contracts, agreements or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statement or the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus for a copy of such contract, agreement or other document. Because we are subject to the information and reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at www.lyell.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference information from other documents that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus and the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the information or documents listed below that we have filed with the SEC (Commission File No. 001-40502):

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 29, 2022;

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A, which was filed with the SEC on April 28, 2022;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on May  10, 2022, and the quarter ended June 30, 2022, filed with the SEC on August 4, 2022;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on February 15, 2022 and June 13, 2022; and

 

   

the description of our common stock set forth in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on June 14, 2021, including all amendments and reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

 

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We also incorporate by reference any future filings (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items unless such Form 8-K expressly provides to the contrary) made with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, until we file a post-effective amendment that indicates the termination of the offering of the common stock made by this prospectus, which will become a part of this prospectus from the date that such documents are filed with the SEC. Information in such future filings updates and supplements the information provided in this prospectus. Any statements in any such future filings will automatically be deemed to modify and supersede any information in any document we previously filed with the SEC that is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated herein by reference to the extent that statements in the later-filed document modify or replace such earlier statements. We will furnish without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits that are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents to:

LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC.

Attn: Chief Financial Officer

201 Haskins Way

South San Francisco, CA 94080

(650) 695-0677

 

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LOGO

Up to $200,000,000

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

 

Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC    BofA Securities

 

 

 

August 4, 2022

 

 

 


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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN THE PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14.

Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following table sets forth an estimate of the fees and expenses, other than the underwriting discounts and commissions, payable by the registrant in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered. All the amounts shown are estimates, except for the SEC registration fee and FINRA filing fees tied to the maximum aggregate offering size under the equity distribution agreement.

 

     Amount  

SEC registration fee

   $ 18,540  

The Nasdaq Global Select Market listing fee

     *  

FINRA filing fee

     225,500  

Accounting fees and expenses

     *  

Legal fees and expenses

     *  

Transfer agent and registrar fees and expenses

     *  

Printing and miscellaneous fees and expenses

     *  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $ *  

 

*

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time. An estimate of the aggregate expenses in connection with the sale and distribution of securities being offered will be included in the applicable prospectus supplement. In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r), the Registrant is deferring payment of all applicable registration fees for the securities available for sale under this Registration Statement.

 

Item 15.

Indemnification of Directors and Executive Officers

Section 145 of the DGCL, authorizes a court to award, or a corporation’s board of directors to grant, indemnity to directors and executive officers in terms sufficiently broad to permit such indemnification under certain circumstances for liabilities, including reimbursement for expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act. Our Restated Certificate permits indemnification of our directors, officers, employees and other agents to the maximum extent permitted by the DGCL, and our Bylaws that provide that we will indemnify our directors and executive officers and permit us to indemnify our employees and other agents, in each case to the maximum extent permitted by the DGCL.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers, whereby we have agreed to indemnify our directors and executive officers to the fullest extent permitted by law, including indemnification against expenses and liabilities incurred in legal proceedings to which the director or executive officer was, or is threatened to be made, a party by reason of the fact that such director or executive officer is or was a director, executive officer, employee, or agent of Lyell, provided that such director or executive officer acted in good faith and in a manner that the director or executive officer reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interest of Lyell.

At present, there is no pending litigation or proceeding involving a director or executive officer of Lyell regarding which indemnification is sought, nor is the registrant aware of any threatened litigation that may result in claims for indemnification.

We maintain insurance policies that indemnify our directors and officers against various liabilities arising under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, that might be incurred by any director or officer in his capacity as such.

The underwriting agreement that Lyell may enter into (Exhibit 1.1) may provide for indemnification by any underwriters of Lyell, its directors, its officers who sign the registration statement and Lyell’s controlling persons for some liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act.

 

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The equity distribution agreement that Registrant has entered into (Exhibit 1.2) provides for indemnification by the sales agents of Lyell, its directors, its officers who sign the registration statement and Lyell’s controlling persons for some liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act.

 

Item 16.

Exhibits

EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit
Number
  

Exhibit Description

   Incorporation by Reference      Filed
Herewith
 
   Form      File Number      Exhibit/
Appendix
Reference
     Filing Date  
  1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement.               
  1.2    Equity Distribution Agreement, dated August 4, 2022, among the Registrant, Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc.                  X  
  3.1    Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation      S-8        333-257249        4.1        June 21, 2021     
  3.2    Amended and Restated Bylaws      S-8        333-257249        4.2        June 21, 2021     
  4.1    Reference is made to Exhibits 3.1 and 3.2.               
  4.2*    Specimen Preferred Stock Certificate and Form of Certificate of Designation of Preferred Stock               
  4.3    Amended and Restated Investors’ Rights Agreement, by and among the Registrant and certain of its stockholders, dated March 5, 2020.      S-1        333-256470        4.2        May 25, 2021     
  4.4    Form of Debt Indenture                  X  
  4.5*    Form of Debt Securities               
  4.6    Form of Common Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate                  X  
  4.7    Form of Preferred Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate                 

X

X

 

 

  4.8    Form of Debt Securities Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate                  X  
  5.1    Opinion of Cooley LLP                  X  
23.1    Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm                  X  
23.2    Consent of Cooley LLP (See Exhibit 5.1)                  X  
24.1    Power of Attorney (See signature page)                  X  
25.1*    Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Debt Indenture               
107    Filing Fee Table                  X  

 

*

To be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference, if applicable.

 

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Item 17.

Undertakings

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

(ii) to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii) to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

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(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(6) That, for the purpose of determining any liability of the registrant under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(7) To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of South San Francisco, State of California, on August 4, 2022.

 

LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC.
By:   /s/ Elizabeth Homans
  Elizabeth Homans
  Chief Executive Officer

POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Elizabeth Homans and Charles Newton, and each of them, as true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full powers of substitution and resubstitution, for them and in their name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this registration statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the SEC, and generally to do all such things in their names and behalf in their capacities as officers and directors to enable Lyell Immunopharma, Inc. to comply with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and all requirements of the SEC, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or any of them, or their or his or her substitutes or substitute, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Elizabeth Homans

Elizabeth Homans

  

Chief Executive Officer and Director

(Principal Executive Officer)

  August 4, 2022

/s/ Charles Newton

Charles Newton

  

Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

  August 4, 2022

/s/ Richard D. Klausner

Richard D. Klausner, M.D.

   Board Chair   August 4, 2022

/s/ Hans Bishop

Hans Bishop

   Director   August 4, 2022

/s/ Otis Brawley

Otis Brawley, M.D.

   Director   August 4, 2022

/s/ Catherine Friedman

Catherine Friedman

   Director   August 4, 2022

 

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/s/ Elizabeth Nabel

Elizabeth Nabel, M.D.

   Director   August 4, 2022

/s/ Robert Nelsen

Robert Nelsen

   Director   August 4, 2022

/s/ William Rieflin

William Rieflin

   Director   August 4, 2022

/s/ Lynn Seely

Lynn Seely, M.D.

   Director   August 4, 2022

 

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EX-1.2

Exhibit 1.2

LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC.

Common Stock ($0.0001 par value)

Having an Aggregate Offering Price of up to

$200,000,000

Equity Distribution Agreement

August 4, 2022

Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

BofA Securities, Inc.

One Bryant Park

New York, NY 10036

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Lyell Immunopharma, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”) confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC (“Goldman”), BofA Securities, Inc. (each a “Manager” and, collectively, the “Managers”) as follows:

1.    Description of Shares. The Company proposes to issue and sell through or to the Managers, as sales agents and/or principals, shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.0001 par value (the “Common Stock”) having an aggregate offering price of up to $200,000,000 (the “Shares”), from time to time during the term of this Agreement and on the terms set forth in Section 3 of this Agreement. The Company hereby appoints the Managers as exclusive agents of the Company for the purpose of making offers and sales of the Shares. The Company agrees that whenever it determines to sell the Shares directly to a Manager as principal, it will enter into a separate agreement (each, a “Terms Agreement”) in substantially the form of Annex I hereto, relating to such sale in accordance with Section 3 of this Agreement. Certain terms used herein are defined in Section 19 hereof.

2.    Representations and Warranties. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Managers at the Execution Time and on each such time the following representations and warranties are repeated or deemed to be made pursuant to this Agreement, as set forth below.

(a)     Form S-3. The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Act and has prepared and filed with the Commission an automatic shelf registration statement on Form S-3, including a related Base Prospectus, for registration under the Act of the offering and sale of the Shares and other securities of the Company. Such Registration Statement, including any amendments thereto filed prior to the Execution Time or prior to any such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made, automatically became effective when filed on August 4, 2022 and no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement has been issued under the Act and no proceedings for that purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, are contemplated or threatened by the Commission, and any

 

1


request on the part of the Commission for additional or supplemental information has been complied with. The Company shall file with the Commission the Prospectus Supplement relating to the Shares in accordance with Rule 424(b) promptly after the Execution Time (but in any event in the time period prescribed thereby). As filed, the Prospectus will contain all information required by the Act and the rules thereunder, and, except to the extent the Managers shall agree in writing to a modification, shall be in all substantive respects in the form furnished to the Managers prior to the Execution Time or prior to any such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made. The Registration Statement, at the Execution Time, each such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made, and at all times during which a prospectus is required by the Act to be delivered (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 or any similar rule) in connection with any offer or sale of Shares, meets the requirements set forth in Rule 415(a)(1)(x). The initial Effective Date of the Registration Statement was not earlier than the date three years before the Execution Time. Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement, any Interim Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3 which were filed under the Exchange Act on or before the Effective Date of the Registration Statement or the issue date of the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement, any Interim Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus, as the case may be; and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement, any Interim Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act after the Effective Date of the Registration Statement or the issue date of the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement, any Interim Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus, as the case may be, deemed to be incorporated therein by reference. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the representations and warranties in this subsection shall not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement or any post-effective amendment or the Prospectus or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information furnished to the Company in writing by the Managers relating to the Managers expressly for use therein.

(b)    Successor Registration Statement. To the extent that the Registration Statement is not available for the sales of the Shares as contemplated by this Agreement, the Company shall file a new registration statement with respect to any additional Common Stock necessary to complete such sales of the Shares and shall cause such registration statement to become effective as promptly as practicable. After the effectiveness of any such registration statement, all references to “Registration Statement” included in this Agreement shall be deemed to include such new registration statement, including all documents incorporated by reference therein pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3, and all references to “Base Prospectus” included in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the final form of prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in any such registration statement at the time such registration statement became effective.

(c)    No Material Misstatements or Omissions in the Registration Statement. On each Effective Date, at the Execution Time, at each deemed effective date with respect to the Managers pursuant to Rule 430B(f)(2) under the Act, at each Applicable Time, at each Settlement Date, at each Time of Delivery and at all times during which a prospectus is required by the Act to be delivered (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 or any similar rule) in

 

2


connection with any offer or sale of Shares, the Registration Statement complied and will comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Act and the rules thereunder and did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading; and on the date of any filing pursuant to Rule 424(b), at each Applicable Time, on each Settlement Date, at each Time of Delivery and at all times during which a prospectus is required by the Act to be delivered (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 or any similar rule) in connection with any offer or sale of Shares, the Prospectus (together with any supplement thereto) complied and will comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Act and the rules thereunder and did not and will not include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; provided, however, that the Company makes no representations or warranties as to the information contained in or omitted from the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (or any supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with information furnished in writing to the Company by the Managers specifically for inclusion in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (or any supplement thereto).

(d)    Disclosure Package. At the Execution Time, at each Applicable Time, at each Settlement Date and each Time of Delivery, the Disclosure Package does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The preceding sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from the Disclosure Package based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Managers specifically for use therein.

(e)    Incorporated Documents. The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (i) at the time they were or hereafter are filed with the Commission, complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder and (ii) when read together with the other information in the Prospectus and the Disclosure Package at any Applicable Time and when read together with the other information in the Prospectus at the date of the Prospectus and at any Settlement Date or Time of Delivery, will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(f)    Ineligible Issuer. The Company is not an “ineligible issuer” (as defined in Rule 405 under the Act).

(g)    Notice of Other Sales. Prior to the execution of this Agreement, the Company has not, directly or indirectly, offered or sold any Shares by means of any “prospectus” (within the meaning of the Act) or used any “prospectus” (within the meaning of the Act) in connection with the offer or sale of the Shares, and from and after the execution of this Agreement, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer or sell any Shares by means of any “prospectus” (within the meaning of the Act) or use any “prospectus” (within the meaning of the Act) in

 

3


connection with the offer or sale of the Shares, other than the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented from time to time in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement; the Company has not, directly or indirectly, prepared, used or referred to any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus in connection with the offer or sale of the Shares.

(h)    No Stop Orders. The Registration Statement is not the subject of a pending proceeding or examination under Section 8(d) or 8(e) of the Act, and the Company is not the subject of a pending proceeding under Section 8A of the Act in connection with the offering of the Shares.

(i)    Regulation M. The Common Stock constitutes an “actively-traded security” exempted from the requirements of Rule 101 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act by subsection (c)(1) of such rule.

(j)    Sales Agency Agreements. The Company has not entered into any other sales agency agreements or other similar arrangements with any agent or any other representative in respect of any at the market offering (within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) under the Act) of the Shares.

(k)    Offering Materials. The Company has not distributed and will not distribute, prior to the termination of this Agreement, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares other than the Prospectus and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus reviewed and consented to by the Managers and identified in Schedule I hereto.

(l)    No Material Adverse Change in Business. None of the Company or any of its subsidiaries has, since the date of the latest audited financial statements included in the Disclosure Package, (i) sustained any material loss or interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor dispute or court or governmental action, order or decree or (ii) entered into any transaction or agreement (whether or not in the ordinary course of business) that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole or incurred any liability or obligation, direct or contingent, that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, in each case otherwise than as set forth or contemplated in the Disclosure Package; and, since the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, there has not been (x) any change in the capital stock of the Company (other than as a result of (i) the exercise or settlement (including any “net” or “cashless” exercises or settlement), if any, of stock options or restricted stock units or the award, vesting or settlement, if any, of stock options, restricted stock, or restricted stock units in the ordinary course of business pursuant to the Company’s equity plans that are described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus or (ii) the issuance, if any, of stock upon conversion of Company securities as described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus) or long term debt of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or (y) any Material Adverse Effect (as defined below); as used in this Agreement, “Material Adverse Effect” shall mean any material adverse change or effect, or any development involving a prospective material adverse change or effect, in or affecting (i) the business, properties, general affairs, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity or results of operations or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, except as set forth or contemplated in the

 

4


Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and Prospectus, or (ii) the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement, including the issuance and sale of the Shares, or to consummate the transactions contemplated in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus.

(m)    Title to Property. The Company and its subsidiaries have good and marketable title to all real property and good and marketable title to all personal property owned by them that is material to their business, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and defects except such as are described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus or such as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its subsidiaries; and any real property and buildings held under lease by the Company and its subsidiaries are held by them under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases with such exceptions as are not material and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property and buildings by the Company and its subsidiaries.

(n)    Good Standing. Each of the Company and each of its subsidiaries has been (i) duly organized and is validly existing and in good standing under the laws of its jurisdiction of organization, with power and authority (corporate and other) to own its properties and conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and Prospectus, and (ii) duly qualified as a foreign corporation for the transaction of business and is in good standing under the laws of each other jurisdiction in which it owns or leases properties or conducts any business so as to require such qualification, except, in the case of this clause (ii), where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(o)    Capitalization. The Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and Prospectus and all of the issued shares of capital stock of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued and are fully paid and non-assessable and conform in all material respects to the description of the Common Stock contained in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus; and all of the issued shares of capital stock of each subsidiary of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid and non-assessable and (except, in the case of any foreign subsidiary, for directors’ qualifying shares) are owned directly or indirectly by the Company, free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, equities or claims, except for such liens or encumbrances described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, if any.

(p)    Due Authorization of the Shares. The Shares have been duly and validly authorized and, when the Shares are issued and delivered against payment therefor as provided herein, such Shares will be duly and validly issued and fully paid and non-assessable and will conform to the description of the Common Stock contained in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus.

(q)    Stock Options. With respect to the Stock Options, (i) each Stock Option intended to qualify as an “incentive stock option” under Section 422 of the Code, so qualified, (ii) each grant of a Stock Option was duly authorized no later than the Grant Date by all necessary corporate action, including, as applicable, approval by the board of directors of the Company (or

 

5


a duly constituted and authorized committee thereof) and any required stockholder approval by the necessary number of votes or written consents, and the award agreement governing such grant (if any) was duly executed and delivered by each party thereto, (ii) each such grant was made in all material respects in accordance with the terms of the applicable Company equity plan and all other applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements and (iii) each such grant was properly accounted for in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) in the financial statements (including the related notes) of the Company. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package or the Prospectus, the Company has not knowingly granted, and there is no and has been no policy or practice of the Company of granting, Stock Options prior to, or otherwise coordinating the grant of Stock Options with, the release or other public announcement of material information regarding the Company or its results of operations or prospects.

(r)    No Conflict or Violation. (i) The issue and sale of the Shares to be sold by the Company and the compliance by the Company with this Agreement and (ii) the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and the consummation of the transactions contemplated in this Agreement and the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus (including the issuance and sale of the Shares, the use of the proceeds from the sale of the Shares as described therein under the caption “Use of Proceeds”) will not conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, or constitute a default under, (A) any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject, (B) the certificate of incorporation or by-laws (or other applicable organizational document) of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or (C) any statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or governmental agency or body having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their properties, except, in the case of this clauses (A) and (C) for such defaults, breaches, or violations that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; and no consent, approval, authorization, order, registration or qualification of or with any such court or governmental agency or body is required for the issue and sale of the Shares to be sold by the Company or the consummation by the Company of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, except such as have been obtained under the Act, the approval by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) of the underwriting terms and arrangements and such consents, approvals, authorizations, registrations or qualifications as may be required under state securities or Blue Sky laws in connection with the purchase and distribution of the Shares by the Managers.

(s)    Absence of Violations, Defaults and Conflicts. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its certificate of incorporation or by-laws (or other applicable organizational document), (ii) in violation of any statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or governmental agency or body having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their properties, or (iii) in default in the performance or observance of any obligation, agreement, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement, lease or other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it or any of its properties may be bound, except, in the case of the foregoing clauses (ii) and (iii), for such violations or defaults as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

6


(t)    Due Authorization. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

(u)     Summaries of Law. The statements set forth in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus under the caption “Description of Capital Stock” insofar as such statements purport to constitute summaries of the terms of the statutes, rules or regulations, legal or governmental proceedings, agreements or documents referred to therein, are accurate summaries of the terms of such statutes, rules or regulations, legal or governmental proceedings, agreements or documents, in all material respects.

(v)    Absence of Proceedings. Other than as set forth in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, there are no legal, governmental or regulatory investigations, actions, demands, claims, suits, arbitrations, inquiries or proceedings (“Actions”) pending to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries or, to the Company’s knowledge, any officer or director of the Company, is a party or of which any property of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or, to the Company’s knowledge, any officer or director of the Company, is the subject which, if determined adversely to the Company or any of its subsidiaries (or such officer or director), would individually or in the aggregate reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and, to the Company’s knowledge, no such proceedings are threatened or contemplated by governmental authorities or others; there are no current or pending Actions that are required under the Act to be described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package or the Prospectus that are not so described therein, and there are no statutes, regulations or contracts or other documents that are required under the Act to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement or described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus that are not so filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement or described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus.

(w)    Permits and Governmental Licenses. The Company and each of its subsidiaries have such permits, licenses, approvals, consents, franchises, certificates of need and other approvals or authorizations of governmental or regulatory authorities (“Permits”) as are necessary under applicable law to own their respective properties and conduct their respective businesses in the manner described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, except for any of the foregoing that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received notice of any proceedings related to the revocation or modification of any such Permits that, individually or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would have a Material Adverse Effect.

(x)    Payment of Taxes. Except as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, (i) the Company and its subsidiaries have filed all necessary federal, state and foreign income, property and franchise tax returns and have paid all taxes required to be paid by any of them and, if due and payable, any related or similar assessment, fine or penalty levied against any of them except as may be being contested in good faith and by appropriate proceedings,

 

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and (ii) the Company has made adequate charges, accruals and reserves in the applicable financial statements referred to in Section 2(qq) hereof in respect of all federal, state and foreign income, property and franchise taxes for all periods as to which the tax liability of the Company or any of its subsidiaries has not been finally determined.

(y)    Possession of Intellectual Property. The Company and its subsidiaries own, or have obtained valid and enforceable licenses for, the inventions, patent applications, patents, trademarks, trade names, service names, copyrights, trade secrets, domain names, technology, know-how and other intellectual property described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package, and the Prospectus as being owned or licensed by them or which are necessary for the conduct of their respective businesses as currently conducted or as currently proposed to be conducted as described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package, and the Prospectus (collectively, “Intellectual Property”). To the knowledge of the Company, there are no third parties who have rights to any Intellectual Property, except for customary reversionary rights of third-party licensors with respect to Intellectual Property that is disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package, and the Prospectus as licensed to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, and the Company and each of its subsidiaries have taken all reasonable steps necessary to secure assignments to their respective title, rights and interests in the Intellectual Property from their respective employees, consultants, agents and contractors. To the knowledge of the Company, no third party has infringed, misappropriated, diluted or otherwise violated, or is infringing, misappropriating, diluting or otherwise violating, any Intellectual Property. To the knowledge of the Company, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is infringing, misappropriating, diluting or otherwise violating, or has infringed, misappropriated, diluted or otherwise violated, any intellectual property rights of third parties. Except as described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package, and the Prospectus, the Company and each of its subsidiaries is either the sole owner or the co-owner of the Intellectual Property owned by it and has the valid and enforceable right to use such Intellectual Property without the obligation to obtain consent to sublicense and without a duty of accounting to any co-owner, as applicable. Except as described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package, and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is obligated to pay a material royalty, grant a license or option, or provide other material consideration to any third party in connection with the Intellectual Property of the Company or its subsidiaries. All employees, consultants, agents and contractors engaged in the development of Intellectual Property on behalf of the Company and its subsidiaries have executed appropriate invention assignment agreements whereby such employees, consultants, agents and contractors presently assign all of their right, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property to the Company, and to the Company’s knowledge, no such agreement has been breached or violated. To the Company’s knowledge, no employee of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is in or has been in violation of any term of any employment contract, patent disclosure agreement, invention assignment agreement, non-competition agreement, non-solicitation agreement, nondisclosure agreement or any restrictive covenant to or with a former employer where the basis of such violation relates to such employee’s employment with the Company or such subsidiary. There is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened in writing action, suit, proceeding or claim by others: (A) challenging the Company’s or any of its subsidiaries’ rights in or to any Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; (B)

 

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challenging the validity, enforceability or scope of any Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; or (C) asserting that either the Company or any of its subsidiaries infringes, misappropriates, dilutes or otherwise violates, or would, upon the manufacturing or commercialization of any product or service described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package, and the Prospectus as under development, infringe, misappropriate, dilute or otherwise violate, any patent, trademark, trade name, service name, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim. The Company and each of its subsidiaries have materially complied with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company or such subsidiary, and all such agreements are in full force and effect. The product candidates described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package, and the Prospectus as under development by the Company fall within the scope of the claims of one or more patents or patent applications owned by, or licensed to, the Company. No government funding, facilities or resources of a university, college, other educational institution or research center was used in the development of any Intellectual Property that is owned or purported to be owned by the Company or any of its subsidiaries that would confer any governmental agency or body, university, college, other educational institution or research center any claim or right of ownership to any such Intellectual Property.

(z)    Patents. (i) All patents and patent applications owned by or exclusively licensed to the Company or its subsidiaries or under which the Company or any of its subsidiaries has rights have, to the knowledge of the Company, been duly and properly filed and each issued patent is being diligently maintained and is valid and enforceable, and the Company is unaware of any facts that would preclude the issuance of a valid and enforceable patent on any pending patent application included in the Intellectual Property; (ii) to the knowledge of the Company, the Company, its subsidiaries, and the parties prosecuting such applications have complied with their duty of candor and disclosure to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (the “USPTO”) and to any relevant foreign patent authority having similar requirements in connection with such patents and patent applications for which it has filing, prosecution, and/or maintenance responsibilities; and (iii) the Company is not aware of any prior art or public or commercial activity or other facts required to be disclosed to the USPTO or any relevant foreign patent authority that were not disclosed and which would preclude the grant of a patent in connection with any such application or would reasonably be expected to form the basis of a finding of invalidity or unenforceability with respect to any patents that have been issued with respect to such applications.

(aa)    Regulatory Compliance. The Company and each of its subsidiaries: (i) has operated and currently operates its business in compliance in all material respects with all Health Care Laws (as defined below) applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, sales, marketing, promotion, packaging, processing, use, distribution, storage, import, export or disposal of any of the Company’s product candidates or any product manufactured or distributed by the Company; (ii) have not received any FDA Form 483, written notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or written notice from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority alleging or asserting material non-compliance with (A) any Health Care Laws or (B) or any material licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, exemptions, authorizations, registrations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto

 

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required by any such Health Care Laws (“Regulatory Authorizations”); (iii) possess all material Regulatory Authorizations required to conduct their business as currently conducted and such Regulatory Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries are in violation, in any material respect, of any term of any such Regulatory Authorizations; (iv) has not received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) or any comparable foreign or other regulatory authority to which they are subject (collectively, the “Applicable Regulatory Authorities”) or any other third party alleging that any product candidate, operation or activity is in material violation of any Health Care Laws or Regulatory Authorizations and the Company has no knowledge that any Applicable Regulatory Authority or other federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authority or any other third party is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding; (v) have not received written notice that any of the Applicable Regulatory Authority or other federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authority has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any material Regulatory Authorizations and has no knowledge that any of the Applicable Regulatory Authority or other federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authority is considering such action; (vi) has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Health Care Laws or Regulatory Authorizations and that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were materially true, complete and correct on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission); (vii) is not a party to or have any ongoing reporting obligations pursuant to any corporate integrity agreements, deferred or non-prosecution agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, plans of correction or similar agreements with or imposed by any Applicable Regulatory Authority; and (viii) along with its employees, officers, directors and, to the Company’s knowledge, agents, has not been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any government health care program or human clinical research or, to the knowledge of the Company, is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that could reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion.

The term “Health Care Laws” means Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1395-1395hhh (the Medicare statute); Title XIX of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1396-1396v (the Medicaid statute); the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b); the civil False Claims Act, 31 U.S.C. §§ 3729 et seq.; the criminal False Claims Act 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7b(a); any criminal laws relating to health care fraud and abuse, including but not limited to 18 U.S.C. Sections 286 and 287 and the health care fraud criminal provisions under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1320d et seq., (“HIPAA”); the Civil Monetary Penalties Law, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1320a-7a; the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h; the Exclusions Law, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7; HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 17921 et seq. (“HITECH”); the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. §§ 301 et seq.; the Public Health Service Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 201 et seq.; the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws; and any similar federal, state and local laws and regulations.

 

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(bb)    Manufacturing Facilities. To the Company’s knowledge, the manufacturing facilities and operations of its suppliers and its subsidiaries’ suppliers are operated in compliance in all material respects with all applicable statutes, rules, regulations and policies of the Applicable Regulatory Authorities.

(cc)    Clinical Studies and Trials. None of the Company’s product candidates has received marketing approval from any Applicable Regulatory Authority. All clinical and pre-clinical studies and trials that have been or are being conducted or sponsored by or on behalf of the Company or its subsidiaries, or in which the Company’s product candidates have participated, or that are described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus (collectively, “Company Trials”), were, and if still pending are, being conducted in all material respects in accordance with all applicable Health Care Laws and current Good Clinical Practices and Good Laboratory Practices, standard medical and scientific research procedures and any applicable rules, regulations and policies of the jurisdiction in which such trials and studies are being conducted, including without limitation, 21 C.F.R. Parts 50, 54, 56, 58 and 312. The descriptions of the Company Trials, and the results thereof, contained in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus are accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly present the data derived therefrom. The Company has no knowledge of any studies or trials, the results of which are inconsistent with or call into question the results described or referred to in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received, and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries have any knowledge after due inquiry that any of their respective collaboration partners have received, any written notices, correspondence or other written communications from the Applicable Regulatory Authorities or any other governmental entity requiring or threatening the termination, material modification or suspension of Company Trials, other than ordinary course communications with respect to modifications in connection with the design and implementation of such studies or trials, and, to the Company’s knowledge, there are no reasonable grounds for the same. No investigational new drug application or comparable submission filed by or on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries with the FDA has been terminated or suspended by the FDA or any other Applicable Regulatory Authority. The Company has obtained (or caused to be obtained) informed consent by or on behalf of each human subject who participated in a Company Trial. In using or disclosing patient information received by the Company or any of its subsidiaries in connection with a Company Trial, the Company or such subsidiary has complied in all material respects with all applicable Health Care Laws. To the Company’s knowledge, none of the Company Trials involved any investigator who has been disqualified as a clinical investigator or has been found by the FDA to have engaged in scientific misconduct.

(dd)    Privacy Laws. The Company and its subsidiaries are, and at all prior times were, in material compliance with all applicable data privacy and security laws and regulations, including without limitation, as applicable, HIPAA, as amended by HITECH (collectively, “Privacy Laws”). To ensure compliance with the Privacy Laws, contractual obligations, industry standards, and any other legal obligations, the Company and its subsidiaries have in place, comply with, and take appropriate steps reasonably designed to ensure compliance in all material respects with their policies and procedures relating to data privacy and security and the collection, storage, use, disclosure, handling, and analysis of Personal Data (the “Policies”) as applicable. “Personal

 

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Data” means all personal, personally identifiable, sensitive, confidential or regulated data, including (i) a natural person’s name, street address, telephone number, e-mail address, photograph, social security number or tax identification number, driver’s license number, passport number, credit card number, bank information, or customer or account number; (ii) any information which would qualify as “personally identifying information” under the Federal Trade Commission Act, as amended; (iii) Protected Health Information as defined by HIPAA; and (iv) any other piece of information that allows the identification of such natural person, or his or her family, or permits the collection or analysis of any data related to an identified person’s health or sexual orientation. The Company and its subsidiaries since inception have at all times made all disclosures to users or customers required by applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, and has provided accurate notice of its Policies then in effect to its customers, employees, third party vendors and representatives as required by applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, except where the failure to do so would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. None of such disclosures made or contained in any of the Policies have been inaccurate, misleading, deceptive or in violation of any Privacy Laws or Policies in any material respect. The execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement or any other agreement referred to in this Agreement will not result in a breach of violation of any Privacy Laws or Policies. The Company further certifies that neither it nor any subsidiary: (i) has received written notice of any actual or potential liability under or relating to, or actual or potential material violation of, any of the Privacy Laws, and has no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice; (ii) is currently conducting or paying for, in whole or in part, any investigation, remediation, or other corrective action pursuant to any Privacy Law; or (iii) is a party to any order, decree, or agreement that imposes any obligation or liability under any Privacy Law

(ee)    IT Systems. Except as would not have a Material Adverse Effect, (A) the Company’s and its subsidiaries’ information technology assets and equipment, computers, systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (collectively, “IT Systems”) are adequate for, and operate and perform in all material respects as required in connection with the operation of the business of the Company and its subsidiaries as currently conducted, and (B) to the knowledge of the Company are free and clear of all bugs, errors, defects, Trojan horses, time bombs, malware and other corruptants; the Company and its subsidiaries have implemented and maintained commercially reasonable controls, policies, procedures, and safeguards designed to maintain and protect their material confidential information and the integrity, continuous operation, redundancy and security of all IT Systems and data (including all Personal Data) used in connection with their businesses, and there have been no breaches, violations, outages or unauthorized uses of or accesses to same, except for those that have been remedied without material cost or liability or the duty to notify any other person, nor any incidents under internal review or investigations relating to the same. The Company and its subsidiaries have complied with and are presently in compliance with all applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, and all industry guidelines, standards, policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Personal Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Personal Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification, except where the failure to so comply would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; the Company has implemented backup disaster recovery technology consistent with industry standards and practice.

 

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(ff)    Statistical and Market-Related Data. The statistical and market-related data included in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company reasonably believes are reliable and accurate in all material respects.

(gg)    Compliance with ERISA. (i) Each employee benefit plan, within the meaning of Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), for which the Company, any of its subsidiaries or any member of its “Controlled Group” (defined as any entity, whether or not incorporated, that is under common control with the Company within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(14) of ERISA or any entity that would be regarded as a single employer with the Company under Section 414(b),(c),(m) or (o) of the Code) would have any liability (each, a “Plan”) has been maintained in compliance with its terms and the requirements of any applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations, including, but not limited to, ERISA and the Code; (ii) no prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, has occurred with respect to any Plan, excluding transactions effected pursuant to a statutory or administrative exemption; (iii) for each Plan that is subject to the funding rules of Section 412 of the Code or Section 302 of ERISA, no Plan has failed (whether or not waived), or is reasonably expected to fail, to satisfy the minimum funding standards (within the meaning of Section 302 of ERISA or Section 412 of the Code) applicable to such Plan; (iv) no Plan is, or is reasonably expected to be, in “at risk status” (within the meaning of Section 303(i) of ERISA) and no Plan that is a “multiemployer plan” within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(3) of ERISA is in “endangered status” or “critical status” (within the meaning of Sections 304 and 305 of ERISA); (v) the fair market value of the assets of each Plan exceeds the present value of all benefits accrued under such Plan (determined based on those assumptions used to fund such Plan); (vi) no “reportable event” (within the meaning of Section 4043(c) of ERISA and the regulations promulgated thereunder) has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur; (vii) each Plan that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code obtained a favorable Internal Revenue Service determination letter (or opinion letter, if applicable) as to its qualified status under the Code, and nothing has occurred, whether by action or by failure to act, which would reasonably be expected to cause the loss of such qualification; (viii) neither the Company nor any member of the Controlled Group has incurred, nor reasonably expects to incur, any liability under Title IV of ERISA (other than contributions to the Plan or premiums to the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, in the ordinary course and without default) in respect of a Plan (including a “multiemployer plan” within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(3) of ERISA); (ix) there is no pending audit or investigation by any governmental agency or any non U.S. regulatory agency with respect to any Plan; and (x) none of the following events has occurred or is reasonably likely to occur: (A) a material increase in the aggregate amount of contributions required to be made to all Plans by the Company or its Controlled Group affiliates in the current fiscal year of the Company or its Controlled Group affiliates compared to the amount of such contributions made in the Company’s or its Controlled Group affiliates’ most recently completed fiscal year; or (B) a material increase in the Company and its subsidiaries’ “accumulated post-retirement benefit obligations” (within the meaning of Accounting Standards Codification Topic 715-60) compared to the amount of such obligations in the Company and its and their subsidiaries’ most recently completed fiscal year, except in each case with respect to the events or conditions set forth in (i) through (x) hereof, as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

 

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(hh)    Environmental Laws. (i) Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in material violation of any applicable federal, state, local or foreign law or regulation relating to pollution or protection of human health or the environment (including, without limitation, ambient air, surface water, groundwater, land surface or subsurface strata) or wildlife, including without limitation, laws and regulations relating to emissions, discharges, releases or threatened releases of chemicals, pollutants, contaminants, wastes, toxic substances, hazardous substances, petroleum and petroleum products (collectively, “Materials of Environmental Concern”), or otherwise relating to the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, treatment, storage, disposal, transport or handling of Materials of Environmental Concern (collectively, “Environmental Laws”), which violation includes, but is not limited to, noncompliance with any permits or other governmental authorizations required for the operation of the business of the Company or its subsidiaries under applicable Environmental Laws, or noncompliance with the terms and conditions thereof, nor has the Company or any of its subsidiaries received any written communication, whether from a governmental authority, citizens group, employee or otherwise, that alleges that the Company or any of its subsidiaries is in violation of any Environmental Law; (ii) there is no claim, action or cause of action filed with a court or governmental authority, no investigation with respect to which the Company has received written notice, and no written notice by any person or entity alleging potential liability for investigatory costs, cleanup costs, governmental responses costs, natural resources damages, property damages, personal injuries, attorneys’ fees or penalties arising out of, based on or resulting from the presence, or release into the environment, of any Material of Environmental Concern at any location owned, leased or operated by the Company or any of its subsidiaries, now or in the past (collectively, “Environmental Claims”), pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any person or entity whose liability for any Environmental Claim the Company or any of its subsidiaries has retained or assumed either contractually or by operation of law; and (iii) to the best of the Company’s knowledge, there are no past or present actions, activities, circumstances, conditions, events or incidents, including, without limitation, the release, emission, discharge, presence or disposal of any Material of Environmental Concern, that reasonably could result in a violation of any Environmental Law or form the basis of a potential Environmental Claim against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or against any person or entity whose liability for any Environmental Claim the Company or any of its subsidiaries has retained or assumed either contractually or by operation of law.

(ii)    Forward-Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) included or incorporated by reference in any of the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package or the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

(jj)    Restrictions on Dividends. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, no subsidiary of the Company is currently prohibited or restricted, directly or indirectly, from paying dividends to the Company or any other subsidiary of the Company, or from making any other distribution with respect to such subsidiary’s equity securities or from repaying to the Company or any other subsidiary of the Company any

 

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amounts that may from time to time become due under any loans or advances to such subsidiary from the Company or any other subsidiary of the Company or from transferring any property or assets to the Company or to any other subsidiary of the Company.

(kk)    Nasdaq Listing. The Company’s Common Stock has been registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act, $200,000,000 shares of Common Stock have been listed, and the Shares have been approved for listing, subject to official notice of issuance, on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”), and the Company has taken no action designed to, or likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or the listing of the Common Stock (including the Shares) on Nasdaq, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing.

(ll)     Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions. There are no material related-party transactions involving the Company or its subsidiaries or any other person required to be described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus which have not been described in such documents as required by applicable laws and regulatory rules.

(mm)    Absence of Labor Dispute. No labor dispute with employees of the Company exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its principal suppliers, contractors or customers except in each case as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company is not party to any collective bargaining agreement.

(nn)    No Finder’s Fee. None of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party to any contract, agreement or understanding with any person (other than this Agreement) that would give rise to a valid claim against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any Manager for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or like payment in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares.

(oo)    Transfer Taxes. There are no transfer taxes or other similar fees or charges under U.S. federal law or the laws of any state, or any political subdivision thereof, required to be paid in connection with the execution and delivery of this Agreement or the issuance or sale by the Company of the Shares.

(pp)    Investment Company Act. The Company is not and, upon the issuance and sale of the Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus under the caption “Use of Proceeds,” will not be, an “investment company”, as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

(qq)    Financial Statements; Non-GAAP Financial Measures. The financial statements included in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, together with the related schedules and notes, present fairly in all material respects the financial position of the Company and its subsidiaries at the dates indicated and the statement of operations,

 

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stockholders’ equity and cash flows of the Company and its subsidiaries for the periods specified; said financial statements have been prepared in conformity with GAAP applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved. The supporting schedules, if any, present fairly and in accordance with GAAP the information required to be stated therein. The selected financial data and the summary financial information included in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus present fairly the information shown therein and have been compiled on a basis consistent with that of the audited financial statements included therein. Except as included therein, no historical or pro forma financial statements or supporting schedules are required to be included in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package or the Prospectus under the Act or the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. All disclosures contained in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) comply with Regulation G of the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K of the Act, to the extent applicable.

(rr)    Independent Accountants. The accountants who certified the financial statements and supporting schedules included in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus are independent public accountants as required by the Act, the Exchange Act and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board.

(ss)    Compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply in all material respects with any applicable provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith, including Section 402 related to loans and Sections 302 and 906 related to certifications.

(tt)    Accounting Controls. The Company maintains a system of internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act) that (i) complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act applicable to the Company, (ii) has been designed by the Company’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or under their supervision, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP and (iii) is sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (A) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization, (B) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets, (C) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization and (D) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences; and the Company’s internal control over financial reporting is effective and the Company is not aware of any material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting (it being understood that this subsection shall not require the Company to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 as of an earlier date than it would otherwise be required to so comply under applicable law). Except as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package or the Prospectus, there has been no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially and adversely affected, or is reasonably likely to materially and adversely affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

 

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(uu)    Disclosure Controls. The Company maintains disclosure controls and procedures (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Exchange Act) that comply with the requirements of the Exchange Act; such disclosure controls and procedures have been designed to ensure that material information relating to the Company and its subsidiaries is made known to the Company’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer by others within those entities; and, except as set forth in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, such disclosure controls and procedures are effective at a reasonable assurance level.

(vv)    Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries, nor any director, officer or employee of the Company or any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee, affiliate or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries has (i) made, offered, promised or authorized any unlawful contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful expense (or taken any act in furtherance thereof); (ii) made, offered, promised or authorized any direct or indirect unlawful payment; or (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the rules and regulations thereunder, the Bribery Act 2010 of the United Kingdom or any other applicable anti-corruption, anti-bribery or related law, statute or regulation (collectively, “Anti-Corruption Laws”); the Company and its subsidiaries have conducted their businesses in compliance with Anti-Corruption Laws and have instituted and maintained and will continue to maintain policies and procedures reasonably designed to promote and achieve compliance with such laws and with the representations and warranties contained herein; neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries will use, directly or indirectly, the proceeds of the offering in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay, or authorization of the payment or giving of money, or anything else of value, to any person in violation of Anti-Corruption Laws.

(ww)    Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with the requirements of applicable anti-money laundering laws, including, but not limited to, the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970, as amended by the USA PATRIOT ACT of 2001, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, and the applicable anti-money laundering laws of the various jurisdictions in which the Company and its subsidiaries conduct business, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulation or guidelines issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

(xx)    OFAC. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries, nor any director, officer, or employee of the Company or any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any agent, affiliate or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is (i) currently the subject or the target of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Government, including, without limitation, the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“OFAC”), or the U.S. Department of State and including, without limitation, the designation as a “specially designated national” or “blocked person,” the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury, the United Nations Security Council, or

 

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other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), (ii) located, organized, or resident in a country or territory that is the subject or target of Sanctions (a “Sanctioned Jurisdiction”), and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the offering of the Shares hereunder, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other person or entity (i) to fund or facilitate any activities of or business with any person, or in any country or territory, that, at the time of such funding, is the subject or the target of Sanctions or (ii) in any other manner that will result in a violation by any person (including any person participating in the transaction, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise) of Sanctions; neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is knowingly engaged in, or has, at any time in the past five years, knowingly engaged in, any dealings or transactions with or involving any individual or entity that was or is, as applicable, at the time of such dealing or transaction, the subject or target of Sanctions or with any Sanctioned Jurisdiction; the Company and its subsidiaries have instituted, and maintain, policies and procedures designed to promote and achieve continued compliance with Sanctions.

(yy)    Insurance. The Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, are insured against such losses and risks and in such amounts as are prudent and customary in the businesses in which they are engaged and as required by law.

(zz)    Stabilization. Neither the Company nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any of its affiliates, has taken or may take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to cause or result in, or which has constituted or which might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares in violation of Regulation M of the Exchange Act.

(aaa)    FINRA Affiliation. To the knowledge of the Company, there are no affiliations or associations between any member of FINRA and any of the officers or directors of the Company or the holders of 5% or greater of the Common Stock, except as described in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus

(bbb)    Accuracy of Exhibits. There are no contracts or other documents that are required by the Act to be described in the Prospectus or filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement, or that are required by the Exchange Act to be filed as exhibits to a document incorporated by reference into the Prospectus, that have not been so described in the Prospectus or filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement or such incorporated document.

(ccc)    XBRL. The interactive data in the eXtensible Business Reporting Language included as an exhibit to the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(ddd)    WKSI. (i) At the original effectiveness of the Registration Statement, (ii) at the time of the most recent amendment thereto for the purposes of complying with Section 10(a)(3) of the Act (whether such amendment was by post-effective amendment or incorporated report filed pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act or in the form of a prospectus), and (iii) at the time the Company or any person acting on its behalf (within the meaning, for this

 

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clause only, of Rule 163(c)) made any offer relating to the Shares in reliance on the exemption of Rule 163, the Company was and is a “well-known seasoned issuer” (as defined in Rule 405 of the Act).

Any certificate signed by any officer of the Company or any of its subsidiaries and delivered to the Managers or to counsel for the Managers in connection with this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company or such subsidiary of the Company, as applicable, to each Manager as to the matters set forth therein.

The Company acknowledges that the Managers and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 4 hereof, counsel for the Company and counsel for the Managers, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.

3.    Sale and Delivery of Shares. On the basis of the representations, warranties and agreements herein contained, but subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, the Company and the Managers agree that the Company may from time to time seek to sell Shares through a Designated Manager, acting as sales agent, or directly to any of the Managers acting as principal, as follows:

(a)    The Company may submit to a Designated Manager its orders (including any price, time or size limits or other customary parameters or conditions) to sell Shares on any Trading Day (as defined herein) in a form and manner as mutually agreed to by the Company and such Designated Manager. As used herein, “Trading Day” shall mean any trading day on Nasdaq.

(b)    Subject to the terms and conditions hereof, each Manager, at any time it is a Designated Manager, shall use its reasonable efforts to execute any Company order submitted to it hereunder to sell Shares and with respect to which such Designated Manager has agreed to act as sales agent. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that a Designated Manager will be successful in selling the Shares, (ii) a Designated Manager will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Shares for any reason other than a failure by a Designated Manager to use its reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) no Manager shall be under any obligation to purchase Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise specifically agreed by Manager and the Company. The Designated Manager may make sales pursuant to each order by any method permitted by law, including without limitation (i) by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions (whether or not solicited), (ii) to or through a market maker, (iii) directly on or through any national securities exchange or facility thereof, a trading facility of a national securities association, an alternative trading system, or any other market venue, (iv) in the over-the-counter market, (v) in privately negotiated transactions, or (vi) through a combination of any such methods.

(c)    The Company shall not authorize the issuance and sale of, and a Designated Manager shall not sell as sales agent, any Share at a price lower than the minimum price therefor designated from time to time by the Company and notified to a Designated Manager in writing. In addition, the Company or a Designated Manager may upon notice to the other party hereto by

 

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telephone (confirmed promptly by email or facsimile), suspend an offering of the Shares with respect to which that Designated Manager is acting as sales agent; provided, however, that such suspension or termination shall not affect or impair the parties’ respective obligations with respect to the Shares sold hereunder prior to the giving of such notice.

(d)    The compensation to a Designated Manager for sales of the Shares with respect to which such Designated Manager acts as sales agent hereunder shall be up to 3.0% of the gross offering proceeds of the Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement as mutually agreed to in writing by such Designated Manager and the Company. The foregoing rate of compensation shall not apply when a Manager, acting as principal, purchases Shares from the Company pursuant to a Terms Agreement. Any compensation or commission due and payable to any Managers hereunder with respect to any sale of Shares shall be paid by the Company to such Managers concurrently with the settlement for sales of the Shares by deduction from the proceeds from sales of the Shares payable to the Company. The remaining proceeds, after further deduction for any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales shall constitute the net proceeds to the Company for such Shares (the “Net Proceeds”).

(e)    Settlement for sales of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement will occur on the second Trading Day following the date on which such sales are made (each such day, a “Settlement Date”). On each Settlement Date, the Shares sold through a Designated Manager for settlement on such date shall be issued and delivered by the Company to such Designated Manager against payment of the Net Proceeds from the sale of such Shares. Settlement for all such Shares shall be effected by free delivery of the Shares, in definitive form, by the Company or its transfer agent to such Designated Manager’s or its designee’s account (provided such Designated Manager shall have given the Company written notice of such designee at least one Business Day prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto, in return for payments in same day funds delivered to the account designated by the Company. If the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable) shall default on its obligation to deliver the Shares on any Settlement Date, the Company shall (i) hold each applicable Designated Manager harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company and (ii) pay each such Designated Manager any commission, discount or other compensation to which it would otherwise be entitled absent such default.

(f)    If acting as sales agent hereunder, the Designated Manager shall provide written confirmation (which may be by facsimile or email) to the Company following the close of trading on Nasdaq each day in which the Shares are sold under this Agreement setting forth (i) the amount of the Shares sold on such day and the gross offering proceeds received from such sale and (ii) the commission payable by the Company to such Designated Manager with respect to such sales.

(g)    At each Applicable Time, Settlement Date, Representation Date (as defined in Section 4(k)) and Filing Date (as defined in Section 4(q)), the Company shall be deemed to have affirmed each representation and warranty contained in this Agreement as if such representation and warranty were made as of such date, modified as necessary to relate to the Registration

 

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Statement and the Prospectus as amended as of such date. Any obligation of a Designated Manager to use its reasonable efforts to sell the Shares on behalf of the Company as sales agent shall be subject to the continuing accuracy of the representations and warranties of the Company herein (and the completion of any diligence to verify such accuracy by such Designated Manager), to the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and to the continuing satisfaction of the additional conditions specified in Section 6 of this Agreement.

(h)    Subject to such further limitations on offers and sales of Shares or delivery of instructions to offer and sell Shares as are set forth herein and as may be mutually agreed upon by the Company and a Designated Manager, the Company shall not request the sale of any Shares that would be sold, and no Designated Manager shall be obligated to sell (i) any time during the period commencing on the tenth business day prior to the time Company shall issue a press release containing, or shall otherwise publicly announce, its earnings, revenues or other results of operations (an “Earnings Announcement”) through and including the time that is 24 hours after the time that the Company files (a “Filing Time”) a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or an Annual Report on Form 10-K that includes consolidated financial statements as of and for the same period or periods, as the case may be, covered by such Earnings Announcement or (ii) during any other period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information related to the Company or the Common Stock.

(i)    If the Company wishes to issue and sell the Shares pursuant to this Agreement directly to any of the Managers acting as principal (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Manager or Managers of the proposed terms of such Placement. If such Manager or Managers, acting as principal, wishes to accept such proposed terms (which a Manager may decline to do for any reason in its sole discretion) or, wishes to accept amended terms proposed by the Company after further discussion, such Manager or Managers and the Company will enter into a Terms Agreement setting forth the terms of such Placement. The terms set forth in a Terms Agreement will not be binding on the Company or such Manager or Managers unless and until the Company and such Manager or Managers have each executed such Terms Agreement accepting all of the terms of such Terms Agreement. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Terms Agreement, the terms of such Terms Agreement will control.

(j)    Each Placement shall be made in accordance with the terms of this Agreement and, if applicable, a Terms Agreement, which will provide for the sale of such Shares to, and the purchase thereof by, such Manager. A Terms Agreement may also specify certain provisions relating to the reoffering of such Shares by a Manager. The commitment of a Manager to purchase the Shares pursuant to any Terms Agreement shall be deemed to have been made on the basis of the representations and warranties of the Company herein contained and shall be subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth. Each Terms Agreement shall specify the number of the Shares to be purchased by a Manager pursuant thereto, the price to be paid to the Company for such Shares, any provisions relating to rights of, and default by, underwriters acting together with such Manager in the reoffering of the Shares, and the time and date (each such time and date being referred to herein as a “Time of Delivery”) and place of delivery of and payment for such Shares.

 

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(k)    Under no circumstances shall the number and aggregate amount of the Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement and any Terms Agreement exceed (i) the aggregate amount set forth in Section 1, (ii) the number of shares of the Common Stock available for issuance under the currently effective Registration Statement or (iii) the number and aggregate amount of the Shares authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement by the board of directors of the Company (the “Board”), or a duly authorized committee thereof and notified to the Managers in writing.

4.    Agreements. The Company agrees with each of the Managers that:

(a)    During any period when the delivery of a prospectus relating to the Shares is required (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 or any similar rule) to be delivered under the Act in connection with the offering or sale of the Shares, the Company will not file any amendment of the Registration Statement or supplement in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares (including the Prospectus Supplement or any Interim Prospectus Supplement) to the Base Prospectus, the Disclosure Package or the Prospectus, pursuant to the Act, unless (i) the Company has furnished to the Managers a copy of such amendment or supplement (including, for the avoidance of doubt, reports or other information to be filed by the Company under the Exchange Act that would be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, in each case, only to the extent that the filing of such report or other information would trigger a Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(k) for which no waiver is applicable) for its review a reasonable period of time prior to filing, and (ii) except for reports or other information required to be filed by the Company under the Exchange Act the Company will not file any such proposed amendment or supplement to which the Managers reasonably object. The Company has prepared the Prospectus, in a form approved by the Managers, and shall file such Prospectus, as amended at the Execution Time, with the Commission pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) promptly after the Execution Time (but in any event within the time period described thereby) and will cause any supplement to the Prospectus to be prepared, in a form approved by the Managers, and will file such supplement with the Commission pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) within the time period prescribed thereby and will notify the Managers of such timely filing. The Company, subject to this Section 4(a) and Section 4(c), will comply with the requirements of Rule 430B. During any period when the delivery of a prospectus relating to the Shares is required (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 or any similar rule) to be delivered under the Act in connection with the offering or sale of the Shares, the Company will promptly advise the Managers (A) when the Prospectus, and any supplement thereto, shall have been filed (if required) with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b), (B) when, during any period when the delivery of a prospectus (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 or any similar rule) is required under the Act in connection with the offering or sale of the Shares, any amendment to the Registration Statement or any new registration statement relating to the Shares shall have been filed or become effective (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to the offering of securities other than the Shares), (C) of the receipt of any comments from the Commission with respect to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any supplement thereto (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to the offering of securities other than the Shares), (D) of any request by the Commission or its staff for any amendment of the Registration Statement, or

 

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for any supplement to the Prospectus or for any additional information related thereto, (E) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or of any notice objecting to its use or any the issuance of any order preventing or suspending the use of the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto, or the institution or threatening of any proceeding for any of such purposes or pursuant to Section 8A of the Act or (F) of the receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification of the Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the institution or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose. The Company will use its reasonable best efforts to prevent the issuance of any such stop order or the occurrence of any such suspension or objection to the use of the Registration Statement and, upon such issuance, occurrence or notice of objection, to obtain at the earliest possible moment the withdrawal of such stop order or relief from such occurrence or objection, including, if necessary, by filing an amendment to the Registration Statement or a new registration statement and, to the extent applicable, using its reasonable best efforts to have such amendment or new registration statement declared effective as soon as practicable.

(b)    If, at any time on or after an Applicable Time but prior to the related Settlement Date or Time of Delivery, any event occurs as a result of which the Disclosure Package would include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary to make the statements therein in the light of the circumstances under which they were made or the circumstances then prevailing not misleading, the Company will (i) notify promptly the relevant Manager(s) so that any use of the Disclosure Package may cease until it is amended or supplemented; (ii) amend or supplement the Disclosure Package to correct such statement or omission; and (iii) supply any amendment or supplement to the relevant Manager(s) in such quantities as the Manager(s) may reasonably request.

(c)    During any period when the delivery of a prospectus relating to the Shares is required (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 or any similar rule) to be delivered under the Act, if any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then supplemented would include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary to make the statements therein in the light of the circumstances under which they were made at such time not misleading, or if it shall be necessary to amend the Registration Statement, file a new registration statement or supplement the Prospectus to comply with the Act or the Exchange Act or the respective rules thereunder, including in connection with use or delivery of the Prospectus, the Company promptly will (i) notify the Managers of any such event, (ii) prepare and file with the Commission, subject to the first sentence of paragraph (a) of this Section 4, an amendment or supplement or new registration statement which will correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance, (iii) use its reasonable best efforts to have any amendment to the Registration Statement or new registration statement declared effective as soon as practicable in order to avoid any disruption in use of the Prospectus and (iv) supply any supplemented Prospectus to the Managers in such quantities as the Managers may reasonably request.

(d)    As soon as practicable, the Company will make generally available to its security holders and to the Managers (which may be satisfied by filing with the Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System) an earnings statement or statements of the Company and its subsidiaries which will satisfy the provisions of Section 11(a) of the Act and Rule 158.

 

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(e)    The Company will deliver to the Managers and counsel for the Managers, without charge, as such Managers or counsel for the Managers may reasonably request, signed copies of the Registration Statement as originally filed and of each amendment thereto (including exhibits filed therewith or incorporated by reference therein and documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference therein) and signed copies of all consents and certificates of experts. The Registration Statement and each amendment thereto furnished to the Managers will be identical to any electronically transmitted copies thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T. The Company will pay the expenses of printing or other production of all documents relating to the offering.

(f)    The Company will deliver to the Managers and counsel for the Managers, without charge, for so long as delivery of a prospectus by the Managers or dealer may be required by the Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 or any similar rule), as many copies of the Prospectus and each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and any supplement thereto as any Manager may reasonably request. The Prospectus and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto furnished to the Managers will be identical to any electronically transmitted copies thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T. The Company will pay the expenses of printing or other production of all documents relating to the offering.

(g)    The Company will arrange, if necessary, for the qualification of the Shares for sale under the laws of such jurisdictions as the Managers may designate and will maintain such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Shares; provided that in no event shall the Company be obligated to qualify to do business in any jurisdiction where it is not now so qualified or to take any action that would subject it to service of process in suits, other than those arising out of the offering or sale of the Shares, in any jurisdiction where it is not now so subject or where it would be subject to taxation as a foreign business.

(h)    The Company agrees that, unless it has or shall have obtained the prior written consent of the relevant Designated Manager, and each Manager agrees with the Company that, unless it has or shall have obtained, as the case may be, the prior written consent of the Company, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Shares that would constitute an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus” (as defined in Rule 405) required to be filed by the Company with the Commission or retained by the Company under Rule 433; provided that the prior written consent of the parties hereto shall be deemed to have been given in respect of the Free Writing Prospectuses included in Schedule I hereto. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Managers or the Company is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company agrees that (i) it has treated and will treat, as the case may be, each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and (ii) it has complied and will comply, as the case may be, with the requirements of Rules 164 and 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including in respect of timely filing with the Commission, legending and record keeping.

 

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(i)    The Company will not (i) take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that might reasonably be expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, purchase or pay any person (other than as contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement) any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Shares.

(j)    The Company will, prior to requesting the sale of any Shares hereunder and at any time during which it has requested the sale of Shares hereunder, advise the Managers promptly after it shall have received notice or obtain knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would materially alter or affect any opinion, certificate, letter and other document provided to the Managers pursuant to Section 6 herein.

(k)    On or prior to the date that the Company first submits an order to any Manager hereunder to sell Shares and at each time during the term of this Agreement after the date of such first Company order that (i) the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be amended or supplemented (other than (A) an Interim Prospectus Supplement filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) pursuant to Section 4(q) of this Agreement, (B) a prospectus supplement relating solely to the offering or resale of securities other than the Shares or (C) the filing with the Commission of any report under the Exchange Act except such reports referred to in Section 4(k)(ii) and (iii)), (ii) there is filed with the Commission any annual report on Form 10-K or quarterly report on Form 10-Q (including any Form 10-K/A or Form 10-Q/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed annual report on Form 10-K or quarterly report on Form 10-Q), (iii) there is filed with the Commission any current report on Form 8-K of the Company containing amended financial information (other than information “furnished” pursuant to Item 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or to provide disclosure pursuant to Item 8.01 of Form 8-K relating to reclassification of certain properties as discontinued operations in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144) or (iv) the Shares are delivered to one or more Managers as principal at the Time of Delivery pursuant to a Terms Agreement (the date of such first Company order and the date of each such event referred to in (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) above, a “Representation Date”), the Company shall furnish or cause to be furnished to the Managers forthwith a certificate dated and delivered on such Representation Date, as the case may be, in form satisfactory to the Managers to the effect that the statements contained in the certificate referred to in Section 6(d) of this Agreement which were last furnished to the Managers are true and correct at the time of such Representation Date, as though made at and as of such time (except that such statements shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to such time) or, in lieu of such certificate, a certificate of the same tenor as the certificate referred to in said Section 6(d), modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of delivery of such certificate. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 4(k) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time when no Company order submitted to any Manager hereunder to sell Shares is pending or a suspension of sales hereunder is in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company submits an order to any Manager to sell Shares hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Shares following a Representation Date when the Company relied upon the foregoing waiver and therefore did not

 

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provide the Managers with a certificate under this Section 4(k), then before the Company submits an order for the sale of Shares or any Manager sells any Shares pursuant to such order, the Company shall provide the Manager with a certificate in conformity with this Section 4(k) dated as of the date that the order for the sale of Shares is submitted to any Manager hereunder, provided that for the avoidance of doubt, such date the certificate is delivered pursuant to the foregoing sentence shall also be a Representation Date.

(l)    At each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(k) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall furnish or cause to be furnished forthwith to the Managers and to counsel to the Managers (i) a written opinion and negative assurances letter of Cooley LLP, counsel to the Company (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to the Managers and (ii) written opinions of Steptoe & Johnson LLP intellectual property counsel for the Company and Sterne, Kessler, Goldstein & Fox P.L.L.C. intellectual property counsel for the Company, or other counsel satisfactory to the Managers (together, “Intellectual Property Counsel”), each dated and delivered on such Representation Date and in form and substance satisfactory to the Managers, of the same tenor as the opinions and negative assurances letter referred to in Section 6(b) of this Agreement, but modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of delivery of such opinions and negative assurances letter.

(m)    At each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(k) for which no waiver is applicable, Latham & Watkins LLP, counsel to the Managers, shall deliver a written opinion and negative assurances letter, dated and delivered on such Representation Date, in form and substance satisfactory to the Managers, of the same tenor as the opinion and negative assurances letter referred to in Section 6(c) of this Agreement but modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of delivery of such opinion and negative assurances letter.

(n)    At each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(k) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause Ernst & Young LLP (the “Accountants”), or other independent accountants satisfactory to the Managers forthwith, to furnish the Managers a letter, dated and delivered on such Representation Date, in form and substance satisfactory to the Managers of the same tenor as the letter referred to in Section 6(e) of this Agreement but modified to relate to the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

(o)    (i) At each quarter end, (ii) in connection with the filing of any annual report on Form 10-K or quarterly report on Form 10-Q (including any Form 10-K/A or Form 10-Q/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed annual report on Form 10-K or quarterly report on Form 10-Q), (iii) at each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(k) for which no waiver is applicable and to the extent not already covered by the preceding subclause (ii), and (iv) at such other times as may be reasonably requested by a Manager, the Company will

 

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conduct a due diligence session, in form and substance satisfactory to the Managers, which shall include representatives of the management of the Company and the independent accountants of the Company; provided that the independent accountants of the Company shall only be required to participate in a diligence session in connection with a Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(k) for which no waiver is applicable. The Company shall cooperate timely with any reasonable due diligence request from or review conducted by the Managers or its agents from time to time in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including, without limitation, providing information and available documents and access to appropriate officers and agents of the Company during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices.

(p)    Nothing in this Agreement shall restrict a Manager from trading, and the Company acknowledges that each Manager may trade in the Common Stock for such Manager’s own account and for the account of its clients before, at the same time as, or after sales of the Shares occur pursuant to this Agreement or pursuant to a Terms Agreement.

(q)    The Company will either (i) disclose in its Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as applicable, with regard to the relevant quarter, the number of the Shares sold by or through the Managers pursuant to this Agreement and the Net Proceeds to the Company with respect to such sales of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement, or (ii) on or prior to the earlier of (A) the date on which the Company shall file a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or an Annual Report on Form 10-K in respect of any fiscal quarter in which sales of Shares were made by a Manager pursuant to this Agreement and (B) the date on which the Company shall be obligated to file such document referred to in clause (A) in respect of such quarter (each such date, and any date on which an amendment to any such document is filed, a “Filing Date”), the Company will file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b), which prospectus supplement will set forth, with regard to such quarter, the number of the Shares sold by or through a Manager pursuant to this Agreement, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation paid by the Company with respect to such sales of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement and deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to Nasdaq as are required by such exchange.

(r)    If, to the knowledge of the Company, the conditions set forth in Section 6(a) or 6(f) shall not be true and correct on the applicable Settlement Date or Time of Delivery, the Company will offer to any person who has agreed to purchase Shares from the Company as the result of an offer to purchase solicited by a Designated Manager the right to refuse to purchase and pay for such Shares.

(s)    Each acceptance by the Company of an offer to purchase the Shares hereunder, and each execution and delivery by the Company of a Terms Agreement, shall be deemed to be an affirmation to the Designated Manager, or the Manager(s) party to a Terms Agreement, as the case may be, that the representations and warranties of the Company contained in or made pursuant to this Agreement are true and correct as of the date of such acceptance or of such Terms Agreement as though made at and as of such date, and an undertaking that such representations and warranties will be true and correct as of the Settlement Date for the Shares relating to such acceptance or as of the Time of Delivery relating to such sale, as the case may be,

 

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as though made at and as of such date (except that such representations and warranties shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented relating to such Shares).

(t)    The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Shares to be listed for trading on Nasdaq and to maintain such listing.

(u)    During any period when the delivery of a prospectus relating to the Shares is required (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 or any similar rule) to be delivered under the Act, the Company shall file, on a timely basis, with the Commission and Nasdaq all reports and documents required to be filed under the Exchange Act and the regulations thereunder.

(v)    The Company shall cooperate with the Managers and use its reasonable efforts to permit the Shares to be eligible for clearance and settlement through the facilities of DTC.

(w)    The Company will apply the Net Proceeds from the sale of the Shares in the manner set forth in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus.

5.    Payment of Expenses. The Company agrees to pay all costs, fees and expenses incurred in connection with the performance of its obligations under this Agreement, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereby are consummated, including without limitation (i) all expenses incident to the issuance and delivery of the Shares (including all printing and engraving costs), (ii) all necessary issue, transfer and other stamp taxes in connection with the issuance and sale of the Shares, (iii) all fees and expenses of the Company’s counsel, independent public or certified public accountants and other advisors to the Company, and the reasonable fees and expenses of the Manager’s counsel (which shall be one outside counsel for all Managers unless otherwise agreed by the Company), (iv) all costs and expenses incurred in connection with the preparation, printing, filing, shipping and distribution of the Registration Statement (including financial statements, exhibits, schedules, consents and certificates of experts), each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and the Prospectus, and all amendments and supplements thereto, and this Agreement, (v) all filing fees, attorneys’ fees and expenses incurred by the Company or the Managers in connection with qualifying or registering (or obtaining exemptions from the qualification or registration of) all or any part of the Shares for offer and sale under the state securities or blue sky laws, and, if requested by the Managers, preparing a “Blue Sky Survey” or memorandum, and any supplements thereto, advising the Managers of such qualifications, registrations and exemptions, (vi) the filing fees incident to the review and approval by FINRA of the terms of the sale of the Shares, (vii) the fees and expenses associated with listing of the Shares on the Nasdaq, (viii) all fees and expenses of the registrar and transfer agent of the Common Stock, (ix) all fees and expenses (including reasonable fees and expenses of counsel) of the Company in connection with approval of the Shares by DTC for “book-entry” transfer, (x) all other fees, costs and expenses referred to in Item 14 of Part II of the Registration Statement and (xi) all other fees, costs and expenses incurred in connection with the performance of its obligations hereunder for which provision is not otherwise made in this Section 5. Except as provided in this Section 5 and in Section 7 hereof, the Managers shall pay their own expenses.

 

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6.    Conditions to the Obligations of the Managers. The obligations of the Managers under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall be subject to (i) the accuracy of the representations and warranties on the part of the Company contained herein as of the Execution Time, each Representation Date, and as of each Applicable Time, Settlement Date and Time of Delivery, (ii) to the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and (iii) the following additional conditions:

(a)    The Prospectus, and any supplement thereto, required by Rule 424 to be filed with the Commission have been filed in the manner and within the time period required by Rule 424(b) with respect to any sale of Shares; each Interim Prospectus Supplement shall have been filed in the manner required by Rule 424(b) within the time period required by Section 4(q) of this Agreement; any material required to be filed by the Company pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Act, shall have been filed with the Commission within the applicable time periods prescribed for such filings by Rule 433; and no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any notice objecting to its use shall have been issued and no proceedings for that purpose or pursuant to Section 8A of the Act shall have been instituted or threatened.

(b)    The Company shall have requested and caused Company Counsel and Intellectual Property Counsel to furnish to the Managers, on every date specified in Section 4(l) of this Agreement, opinions and negative assurance letter in form and substance satisfactory to the Managers.

(c)    The Managers shall have received from Latham & Watkins LLP, counsel for the Managers, on every date specified in Section 4(m) of this Agreement, such opinion or opinions and negative assurance letter or letters, dated as of such date and addressed to the Managers, with respect to the issuance and sale of the Shares, the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package, the Prospectus (together with any supplement thereto) and other related matters as the Managers may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they reasonably request for the purpose of enabling them to pass upon such matters.

(d)    The Company shall have furnished or caused to be furnished to the Managers, on every date specified in Section 4(k) of this Agreement, a certificate of the Company, signed by the chief executive officer or the President of the Company, and of the chief financial or chief accounting officer of the Company, dated as of such date, to the effect that the signers of such certificate have carefully examined the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus and any supplements or amendments thereto and this Agreement and that:

(i)    the Company has received no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, and no proceedings for such purpose or pursuant to Section 8A of the Act have been instituted or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened by the Commission;

(ii)    since the date of the most recent financial statements included in the Prospectus and the Disclosure Package, there has been no event or condition of a type described in Section 2(l) hereof (a “Material Adverse Change”), except as set forth in or contemplated in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus;

 

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(iii)    the representations, warranties and covenants set forth in Section 2 of this Agreement are true and correct with the same force and effect as though expressly made on and as of such date; and

(iv)    the Company and its subsidiaries have complied with all the agreements hereunder and satisfied all the conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied hereunder at or prior to such date.

(e)    The Company shall have requested and caused the Accountants to have furnished to the Managers, on every date specified in Section 4(n) hereof and to the extent requested by the Managers in connection with any offering of the Shares, letters (which may refer to letters previously delivered to the Managers), dated as of such date, in form and substance satisfactory to the Managers, which letters shall cover, without limitation, the various financial statements and disclosures contained in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings as contemplated in the Statement on Auditing Standards No. 72, as well as confirming that they have performed a review of any unaudited interim financial information of the Company included in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus in accordance with Statement on Auditing Standards No. 100.

References to the Prospectus in this paragraph (e) include any supplement thereto at the date of the letter.

(f)    Since the respective dates as of which information is disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, except as otherwise stated therein, there shall not have been (i) any change or decrease specified in the letter or letters referred to in paragraph (e) of this Section 6 or (ii) Material Adverse Change, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Disclosure Package (exclusive of any amendment or supplement thereto) the effect of which, in any case referred to in clause (i) or (ii) above, is, in the sole judgment of the Managers, so material and adverse as to make it impractical or inadvisable to proceed with the offering or delivery of the Shares as contemplated by the Registration Statement (exclusive of any amendment thereof), the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus (exclusive of any amendment or supplement thereto).

(g)    FINRA shall not have raised any objection with respect to the fairness and reasonableness of the terms and arrangements under this Agreement.

(h)    The Shares shall have been listed and admitted and authorized for trading on Nasdaq, and satisfactory evidence of such actions shall have been provided to the Managers.

 

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(i)    Prior to each Settlement Date and Time of Delivery, as applicable, the Company shall have furnished to the Designated Manager such further information, certificates and documents as the Designated Manager may reasonably request.

If any of the conditions specified in this Section 6 shall not have been fulfilled when and as provided in this Agreement, or if any of the opinions and certificates mentioned above or elsewhere in this Agreement shall not be reasonably satisfactory in form and substance to the Managers and counsel for the Managers, this Agreement and all obligations of the applicable Manager hereunder may be canceled at, or at any time prior to, any Settlement Date or Time of Delivery, as applicable, by such Manager with respect to itself only. Notice of such cancellation shall be given to the Company in writing or by telephone or facsimile confirmed in writing. Following any such cancellation by a Manager, this Agreement shall remain in effect as to the other Manager that has not exercised its right to cancel this Agreement pursuant to this Section 6 and any obligations and rights of the Managers under this Agreement shall be satisfied by or afforded to only such other Manager.

The documents required to be delivered by this Section 6 shall be delivered remotely via the electronic exchange, on each such date as provided in this Agreement.

 

  7.

Indemnification and Contribution.

(a)    The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless each Manager, its affiliates, as such term is defined in Rule 501(b) under the Act (each, an “Affiliate”), the directors, officers, employees and agents of each Manager, any broker-dealer affiliate of a Manager through which Shares are sold, and each person who controls a Manager within the meaning of either the Act or the Exchange Act and against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense, as incurred, to which they or any of them may become subject under the Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise (including in settlement of any litigation, if such settlement is effected with the written consent of the Company or otherwise permitted by paragraph (d) below), insofar as such loss, claim, damage, liability or expense (or actions in respect thereof as contemplated below) arises out of or is based (i) upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto) or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading; or (ii) upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or any “issuer information” filed or required to be filed pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Act, the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement or any Interim Prospectus Supplement (or any amendment or supplement thereto) or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact, in each case, necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; or (iii) in whole or in part upon any inaccuracy in the representations and warranties of the Company contained herein; or (iv) in whole or in part upon any failure of the Company to perform its obligations hereunder or under law; and agrees to reimburse each such indemnified party, for any and all expenses (including the reasonable fees and disbursements of counsel chosen by the indemnified party) as such expenses are reasonably incurred by them in connection with investigating, defending, settling, compromising or paying any such loss, claim, damage, liability, expense or action; provided,

 

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however, that the foregoing indemnity agreement shall not apply to any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense to the extent, but only to the extent, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by any Manager expressly for use in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto), any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto). This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liabilities that the Company may otherwise have.

(b)    Each Manager agrees, severally and not jointly, to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, each of its directors, each of its officers who signed the Registration Statement and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of the Act or the Exchange Act, against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense, as incurred, to which the Company or any such director, officer or controlling person may become subject, under the Act, the Exchange Act, or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, or at common law or otherwise (including in settlement of any litigation, if such settlement is effected with the written consent of such Manager or otherwise permitted by paragraph (d) below), insofar as such loss, claim, damage, liability or expense (or actions in respect thereof as contemplated below) arises out of or is based (i) upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto) or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading; or (ii) upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or any “issuer information” filed or required to be filed pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Act, the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement or any Interim Prospectus Supplement (or any amendment or supplement thereto) or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact, in each case, necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, in each case to the extent, but only to the extent, that such untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission was made in the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement or any Interim Prospectus Supplement (or any amendment or supplement thereto), in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by any Manager expressly for use therein; and to reimburse the Company, or any such director, officer or controlling person for any legal and other expense reasonably incurred by the Company, or any such director, officer or controlling person in connection with investigating, defending, settling, compromising or paying any such loss, claim, damage, liability, expense or action. The indemnity agreement set forth in this Section 7(b) shall be in addition to any liabilities that each Manager may otherwise have. The Company acknowledges that with respect to each Manager, (i) the name of such Manager and (ii) the ninth paragraph under “Plan of Distribution” constitute the only information furnished in writing by or on behalf of the several Managers for inclusion in the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement or any Interim Prospectus Supplement (or any amendment or supplement thereto).

(c)    Promptly after receipt by an indemnified party under this Section 7 of notice of the commencement of any action, such indemnified party will, if a claim in respect thereof is to be made against the indemnifying party under this Section 7, notify the indemnifying party in writing of the commencement thereof; but the omission to so notify the indemnifying party will

 

32


not relieve it from any liability which it may have to any indemnified party for contribution or otherwise than under the indemnity agreement contained in paragraph (a) or (b) above or to the extent it is not prejudiced (through the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses) as a proximate result of such failure. In case any such action is brought against any indemnified party and such indemnified party seeks or intends to seek indemnity from an indemnifying party, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in, and, to the extent that it shall elect, jointly with all other indemnifying parties similarly notified, by written notice delivered to the indemnified party promptly after receiving the aforesaid notice from such indemnified party, to assume the defense thereof with counsel reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party; provided, however, if the defendants in any such action include both the indemnified party and the indemnifying party and the indemnified party shall have reasonably concluded that a conflict may arise between the positions of the indemnifying party and the indemnified party in conducting the defense of any such action or that there may be legal defenses available to it and/or other indemnified parties which are different from or additional to those available to the indemnifying party, the indemnified party or parties shall have the right to select separate counsel to assume such legal defenses and to otherwise participate in the defense of such action on behalf of such indemnified party or parties. Upon receipt of notice from the indemnifying party to such indemnified party of such indemnifying party’s election to assume the defense of such action and approval by the indemnified party of counsel, the indemnifying party will not be liable to such indemnified party under this Section 7 for any legal or other expenses subsequently incurred by such indemnified party in connection with the defense thereof unless (i) the indemnified party shall have employed separate counsel in accordance with the proviso to the next preceding sentence (it being understood, however, that the indemnifying party shall not be liable for the expenses of more than one separate counsel (together with local counsel), approved by the indemnifying party (the Managers in the case of Section 7(b) and Section 7(e)), representing the indemnified parties who are parties to such action), (ii) the indemnifying party shall not have employed counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party to represent the indemnified party within a reasonable time after notice of commencement of the action, in each of which cases the fees and expenses of counsel shall be at the expense of the indemnifying party or (iii) the indemnifying party shall authorize the indemnified party to employ separate counsel at the expense of the indemnifying party.

(d)    The indemnifying party under this Section 7 shall not be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent, but if settled with such consent or if there be a final judgment for the plaintiff, the indemnifying party agrees to indemnify the indemnified party against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense by reason of such settlement or judgment. Notwithstanding the foregoing sentence, if at any time an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for fees and expenses of counsel as contemplated by Section 7(c) hereof, the indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent if (i) such settlement is entered into more than 60 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request and (ii) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed the indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of the indemnified party, effect any settlement, compromise or consent to the entry of judgment in any pending or threatened action, suit or proceeding in respect of which any

 

33


indemnified party is or could have been a party and indemnity was or could have been sought hereunder by such indemnified party, unless such settlement, compromise or consent (i) includes an unconditional release of such indemnified party from all liability on claims that are the subject matter of such action, suit or proceeding and (ii) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act, by or on behalf of any indemnified party.

(e)    If the indemnification provided for in this Section 7 is for any reason held to be unavailable to or otherwise insufficient to hold harmless an indemnified party in respect of any losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses referred to therein, then each indemnifying party shall contribute to the aggregate amount paid or payable by such indemnified party, as incurred, as a result of any losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses referred to therein (i) in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company, on the one hand, and each Manager, on the other hand, from the offering of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement, or (ii) if the allocation provided by clause (i) above is not permitted by applicable law, in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in clause (i) above but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and each Manager, on the other hand, in connection with the statements or omissions or inaccuracies in the representations and warranties herein which resulted in such losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations. The relative benefits received by the Company shall be deemed to be equal to the total net proceeds from the offering (before deducting expenses) received by them, and benefits received by each Manager shall be deemed to be equal to the total compensation received by such Manager under Section 3(c) of this Agreement, in each case as determined by this Agreement or any applicable Terms Agreement. The relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and each Manager, on the other hand, shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether any such untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact or any such inaccurate or alleged inaccurate representation or warranty relates to information supplied by the Company, on the one hand, or such Manager, on the other hand, and the parties’ relative intent, knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission.

The amount paid or payable by a party as a result of the losses, claims, damages, liabilities and expenses referred to above shall be deemed to include, subject to the limitations set forth in Section 7(c), any legal or other fees or expenses reasonably incurred by such party in connection with investigating or defending any action or claim. The provisions set forth in Section 7(c) with respect to notice of commencement of any action shall apply if a claim for contribution is to be made under this Section 7(e); provided, however, that no additional notice shall be required with respect to any action for which notice has been given under Section 7(c) for purposes of indemnification.

The Company and the Managers agree that it would not be just and equitable if contribution pursuant to this Section 7(e) were determined by pro rata allocation (even if the Managers were treated as one entity for such purpose) or by any other method of allocation which does not take account of the equitable considerations referred to in this Section 7(e).

Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 7(e), no Manager shall be required to contribute any amount in excess of the discounts and commissions received by such Manager in

 

34


connection with the Shares sold by it pursuant to this Agreement and any applicable Terms Agreement in the specific transaction or transactions giving rise to the contribution obligation. No person guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. The Managers’ obligations to contribute pursuant to this Section 7(e) are several, and not joint. For purposes of this Section 7(e), each Affiliate, director, officer, employee and agent of a Manager, each person, if any, who controls a Manager within the meaning of the Act and the Exchange Act and any broker-dealer affiliate of a Manager through which Shares are sold shall have the same rights to contribution as such Manager, and each director of the Company or each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of the Act and the Exchange Act shall have the same rights to contribution as the Company.

 

  8.

Termination.

(a)    The Company shall have the right, by giving written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate the provisions of this Agreement relating to the solicitation of offers to purchase the Shares in its sole discretion at any time. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that (i) if Shares have been sold through a Manager for the Company, then Section 4(s) shall remain in full force and effect with respect to such Manager and the Company, (ii) with respect to any pending sale at the time of delivery of the notice of termination, through the Designated Manager for the Company, the obligations of the Company, including in respect of compensation of the Designated Manager, shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding the termination and (iii) the provisions of Sections 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12 and 14 of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(b)    Each Manager shall have the right, by giving written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate the provisions of this Agreement relating to the solicitation of offers to purchase the Shares in its sole discretion at any time, with respect to such Manager only. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Sections 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12 and 14 of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect with respect to such Manager notwithstanding such termination. Following any such termination by a Manager, this Agreement shall remain in effect as to each other Manager that has not exercised its right to terminate the provisions of this Agreement pursuant to this Section 8(b) and any obligations and rights of the Managers under this Agreement shall be satisfied by or afforded to, as applicable, only such other Managers.

(c)    This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 8(a) or (b) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Sections 2, 5, 7 and 9 shall remain in full force and effect.

(d)    Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by a Manager or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date or Time of Delivery for any sale of the Shares, such sale shall, subject to Section 6 hereof, settle in accordance with the provisions of Section 3(e) of this Agreement.

 

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(e)    In the case of any purchase of Shares by a Manager pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the obligations of such Manager pursuant to such Terms Agreement shall be subject to termination, in the absolute discretion of such Manager, by notice given to the Company prior to the Time of Delivery relating to such Shares, if at any time prior to such delivery and payment (i) trading or quotation in any of the Company’s securities shall have been suspended or limited by the Commission or by Nasdaq, or trading in securities generally on either the Nasdaq or the New York Stock Exchange shall have been suspended or limited, or minimum or maximum prices shall have been generally established on any of such stock exchanges by the Commission or FINRA; (ii) a general banking moratorium shall have been declared by any of federal or New York authorities; (iii) there shall have occurred any outbreak or escalation of national or international hostilities or any crisis or calamity involving the United States, or any change in the United States or international financial markets, or any substantial change or development involving a prospective substantial change in United States’ or international political, financial or economic conditions, as in the judgment of such Manager is material and adverse and makes it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering or delivery of the Shares in the manner and on the terms described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus or to enforce contracts for the sale of securities; (iv) in the judgment of such Manager there shall have occurred any Material Adverse Change or (v) there shall have occurred a material disruption in commercial banking or securities settlement or clearance services in the United States.

9.    Representations and Indemnities to Survive. The respective agreements, representations, warranties, indemnities and other statements of the Company, the officers of the Company and of each Manager set forth in or made pursuant to this Agreement will remain in full force and effect, regardless of any investigation made by a Manager or the Company or any of the officers, directors, employees, agents or controlling persons referred to in Section 7 hereof, and will survive delivery of and payment for the Shares.

10.    Notices. All communications hereunder will be in writing and effective only on receipt, and:

If sent to Goldman, will be mailed, delivered or telefaxed to:

Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

Facsimile: (212) 902-9316

Attention: Registration Department

If sent to BofA Securities, Inc., will be mailed, delivered or telefaxed to

BofA Securities, Inc.

One Bryant Park

New York, NY 10036

 

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Attention: ATM Execution

dg.atm_execution@bofa.com

with a copy to:

Latham & Watkins LLP

140 Scott Drive

Menlo Park, CA 94025

Facsimile: (213) 891-1707

Attention: Brian Cuneo

If sent to the Company, will be mailed, delivered or telefaxed to:

Lyell Immunopharma, Inc.

201 Haskins Way

South San Francisco, California 94080

Attention: Chief Financial Officer

with a copy to (which shall not constitute notice):

Cooley LLP

3 Embarcadero Center, 20th Floor

San Francisco, CA 94111

Attention: David Peinsipp

Any party hereto may change the address for receipt of communications by giving written notice to the others.

11.    Successors. This Agreement will inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto and their respective successors and the officers, directors, employees, agents and controlling persons referred to in Section 7 hereof, and no other person will have any right or obligation hereunder.

12.    No Fiduciary Duty. The Company hereby acknowledges that (a) the purchase and sale of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement is an arm’s-length commercial transaction between the Company, on the one hand, and the Manager and any affiliate through which it may be acting, on the other, (b) the Manager is acting solely as sales agent and/or principal in connection with the purchase and sale of the Company’s securities and not as a fiduciary of the Company and (c) the Company’s engagement of each Manager in connection with the offering and the process leading up to the offering is as independent contractors and not in any other capacity. Furthermore, the Company agrees that it is solely responsible for making its own judgments in connection with the offering (irrespective of whether a Manager has advised or is currently advising it on related or other matters). The Company agrees that it will not claim that a Manager has rendered advisory services of any nature or respect, or owe an agency, fiduciary or similar duty to the Company, in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or the process leading thereto.

 

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13.    Integration. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement supersede all prior agreements and understandings (whether written or oral) between the Company and the Managers with respect to the subject matter hereof.

14.    Applicable Law. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York applicable to contracts made and to be performed within the State of New York.

15.    Waiver of Jury Trial. The Company hereby irrevocably waives, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to this Agreement, any Terms Agreement or the transactions contemplated hereby or thereby.

16.    Counterparts. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement may be signed in one or more counterparts, including facsimile and .pdf electronic counterparts (including any electronic signature covered by the U.S. federal ESIGN Act of 2000, Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, the Electronic Signatures and Records Act or other applicable law), each of which, when executed and delivered, shall constitute an original and all of which together shall constitute one and the same agreement.

17.    Headings. The section headings used in this Agreement and any Terms Agreement are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

18.    Recognition of the U.S. Special Resolution Regimes.

(a)    In the event that any Manager that is a Covered Entity becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, the transfer from such Manager of this Agreement, and any interest and obligation in or under this Agreement, will be effective to the same extent as the transfer would be effective under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement, and any such interest and obligation, were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

(b)    In the event that any Manager that is a Covered Entity or a BHC Act Affiliate of such Manager becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, Default Rights under this Agreement that may be exercised against such Manager are permitted to be exercised to no greater extent than such Default Rights could be exercised under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

As used in this Section 18:

BHC Act Affiliate” has the meaning assigned to the term “affiliate” in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 U.S.C. § 1841(k).

Covered Entity” means any of the following:

(i) a “covered entity” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 252.82(b);

 

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(ii) a “covered bank” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 47.3(b); or

(iii) a “covered FSI” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 382.2(b).

Default Right” has the meaning assigned to that term in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. §§ 252.81, 47.2 or 382.1, as applicable.

U.S. Special Resolution Regime” means each of (i) the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder and (ii) Title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

19.    Definitions. The terms that follow, when used in this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, shall have the meanings indicated.

Act” shall mean the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission promulgated thereunder.

Applicable Time” shall mean, with respect to any Shares, the time of sale of such Shares pursuant to this Agreement or any relevant Terms Agreement.

Base Prospectus” shall mean the base prospectus referred to in Section 2(a) above contained in the Registration Statement at the Execution Time.

Business Day” shall mean any day other than a Saturday, a Sunday or a legal holiday or a day on which banking institutions or trust companies are authorized or obligated by law to close in New York City.

Code” shall mean the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

Commission” shall mean the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Designated Manager” shall mean, as of any given time, a Manager that the Company has designated as sales agent to sell Shares pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.

Disclosure Package” shall mean (i) the Base Prospectus, (ii) the Prospectus Supplement, (iii) the most recently filed Interim Prospectus Supplement, if any, (iv) the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, identified in Schedule I hereto, (v) the public offering price of Shares sold at the relevant Applicable Time as specified in a Terms Agreement and (vi) any other Free Writing Prospectus that the parties hereto shall hereafter expressly agree in writing to treat as part of the Disclosure Package.

Effective Date” shall mean each date and time that the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment or amendments thereto became or becomes effective.

 

39


Exchange Act” shall mean the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission promulgated thereunder.

Execution Time” shall mean the date and time that this Agreement is executed and delivered by the parties hereto.

Free Writing Prospectus” shall mean a free writing prospectus, as defined in Rule 405.

Grant Date” shall mean the date on which the grant of a Stock Option was by its terms to be effective.

Interim Prospectus Supplement” shall mean the prospectus supplement relating to the Shares prepared and filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) from time to time as provided by Section 4(q) of this Agreement.

Issuer Free Writing Prospectus” shall mean an issuer free writing prospectus, as defined in Rule 433.

Prospectus” shall mean the Base Prospectus, as supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement and the most recently filed Interim Prospectus Supplement (if any).

Prospectus Supplement” shall mean the most recent prospectus supplement relating to the Shares that was first filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) at or prior to the Execution Time.

Registration Statement” shall mean the registration statement referred to in Section 2(a) above, including exhibits and financial statements and any prospectus supplement relating to the Shares that is filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) and deemed part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B, as amended on each Effective Date and, in the event any post-effective amendment thereto becomes effective, shall also mean such registration statement as so amended.

Rule 158,” “Rule 163,” “Rule 164,” “Rule 172,” “Rule 405,” “Rule 415,” “Rule 424,” “Rule 430B” and “Rule 433” refer to such rules under the Act.

Stock Options” shall mean stock options granted pursuant to the Company’s equity plans.

[Signature Page Follows]

 

40


If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding of our agreement, please sign and return to us the enclosed duplicate hereof, whereupon this letter and your acceptance shall represent a binding agreement among the Company and the Managers.

 

Very truly yours,
Lyell Immunopharma, Inc.
By:  

/s/ Elizabeth Homans

Name:   Elizabeth Homans
Title:   Chief Executive Officer

SIGNATURE PAGE TO EQUITY DISTRIBUTION AGREEMENT

 


CONFIRMED AND ACCEPTED,

as of the date first written above:

Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC
By:  

/s/ Ryan Fisk

Name:   Ryan Fisk
Title:   Managing Director
BofA Securities, Inc.
By:  

/s/ Greg Butz

Name:   Greg Butz
Title:   Managing Director

SIGNATURE PAGE TO EQUITY DISTRIBUTION AGREEMENT

 


SCHEDULE I

Schedule of Free Writing Prospectuses included in the Disclosure Package

[None]

 

Schedule I


[Form of Terms Agreement]

  ANNEX I

LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC.

Common Stock ($0.0001 par value)

TERMS AGREEMENT

                        , 20        

[name/address of designated manager]

Dear Sirs:

Lyell Immunopharma, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”) proposes, subject to the terms and conditions stated herein and in the Equity Distribution Agreement, dated August 4, 2022 (the “Equity Distribution Agreement”), among the Company, Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC, and BofA Securities, Inc., to issue and sell to Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and BofA Securities, Inc., the securities specified in the Schedule I hereto (the “Purchased Shares”)[, and solely for the purpose of covering over-allotments, to grant to [name of designated manager] (the “Designated Manager”) the option to purchase the additional securities specified in the Schedule I hereto (the “Additional Shares”)]. [Include only if the Designated Manager has an over-allotment option]

[The Designated Manager shall have the right to purchase from the Company all or a portion of the Additional Shares as may be necessary to cover over-allotments made in connection with the offering of the Purchased Shares, at the same purchase price per share to be paid by the Designated Manager to the Company for the Purchased Shares. This option may be exercised by the Designated Manager at any time (but not more than once) on or before the thirtieth day following the date hereof, by written notice to the Company. Such notice shall set forth the aggregate number of shares of Additional Shares as to which the option is being exercised, and the date and time when the Additional Shares are to be delivered (such date and time being herein referred to as the “Option Closing Date”); provided, however, that the Option Closing Date shall not be earlier than the Time of Delivery (as set forth in the Schedule I hereto) nor earlier than the second business day after the date on which the option shall have been exercised nor later than the fifth business day after the date on which the option shall have been exercised. Payment of the purchase price for the Additional Shares shall be made at the Option Closing Date in the same manner and at the same office as the payment for the Purchased Shares.] [Include only if the Designated Manager has an over-allotment option]

Each of the provisions of the Equity Distribution Agreement not specifically related to the solicitation by the Designated Manager, as agent of the Company, of offers to purchase securities is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, and shall be deemed to be part of this Terms Agreement to the same extent as if such provisions had been set forth in full herein. Each of the representations and warranties set forth therein shall be deemed to have been made at and as of the date of this Terms Agreement [and] [,] the Time of Delivery [and any Option Closing Date] [Include only if the Designated Manager has an over-allotment option], except that each representation and warranty in Section 2 of the Equity Distribution Agreement which makes reference to the Prospectus (as therein defined) shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty

 

Exhibit A-1


as of the date of the Equity Distribution Agreement in relation to the Prospectus, and also a representation and warranty as of the date of this Terms Agreement [and] [,] the Time of Delivery [and any Option Closing Date] [Include only if the Designated Manager has an over-allotment option] in relation to the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to relate to the Purchased Shares.

An amendment to the Registration Statement (as defined in the Equity Distribution Agreement), or a supplement to the Prospectus, as the case may be, relating to the Purchased Shares [and the Additional Shares] [Include only if the Designated Manager has an over-allotment option], in the form heretofore delivered to the Manager is now proposed to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein and in the Equity Distribution Agreement which are incorporated herein by reference, the Company agrees to issue and sell to the Designated Manager and the latter agrees to purchase from the Company the number of shares of the Purchased Shares at the time and place and at the purchase price set forth in the Schedule I hereto.

If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding, please sign and return to us a counterpart hereof, whereupon this Terms Agreement, including those provisions of the Equity Distribution Agreement incorporated herein by reference, shall constitute a binding agreement between the Managers and the Company.

 

Lyell Immunopharma, Inc.
By:  

 

Name:  
Title:  

 

ACCEPTED as of the date first written above.
[Designated Manager]
By:  

 

Name:  
Title:  

 

Exhibit A-2


[Form of Terms Agreement]    Schedule I to the Terms Agreement

Title of Purchased Shares [and Additional Shares]:

Common Stock

Number of Shares of Purchased Shares:

[Number of Shares of Additional Shares:]

[Price to Public:]

Purchase Price by [Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC] [BofA Securities, Inc.]:

Method of and Specified Funds for Payment of Purchase Price:

By wire transfer to a bank account specified by the Company in same day funds.

Method of Delivery:

Free delivery of the Shares to the Manager’s account at The Depository Trust Company in return for payment of the purchase price.

Time of Delivery:

Closing Location:

Documents to be Delivered:

The following documents referred to in the Equity Distribution Agreement shall be delivered as a condition to the closing at the Time of Delivery [and on any Option Closing Date]:

 

(1)

The opinion referred to in Section 4(l).

 

(2)

The opinion referred to in Section 4(m).

 

(3)

The accountants’ letter referred to in Section 4(n).

 

(4)

The officers’ certificate referred to in Section 4(k).

 

(5)

Such other documents as the Manager shall reasonably request.

 

Exhibit A-3

EX-4.4

Exhibit 4.4

LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC.

AND

_____________, AS TRUSTEE

FORM OF INDENTURE

DATED AS OF __________

Debt Securities


LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC.

FORM OF INDENTURE

THIS INDENTURE, dated as of [•], between LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [TRUSTEE], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

Section 1.01 Definitions of Terms

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

Authenticating Agent” means the Trustee or an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors (or the functional equivalent thereof) of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

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Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors (or duly authorized committee thereof) and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

Company” means Lyell Immunopharma, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and, subject to the provisions of Article Ten, shall also include its successors and assigns.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at                                                                                                        .

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

Exchange Act” means the United States Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder.

The term “given”, “mailed”, “notify” or “sent” with respect to any notice to be given to a Securityholder pursuant to this Indenture, shall mean notice (x) given to the Depositary (or its designee) pursuant to the standing instructions from the Depositary or its designee, including by electronic mail in accordance with accepted practices or procedures at the Depositary (in the case of a Global Security) or (y) mailed to such Securityholder by first class mail, postage prepaid, at its address as it appears on the Security Register (in the case of a definitive Security). Notice so “given” shall be deemed to include any notice to be “mailed” or “delivered,” as applicable, under this Indenture.

 

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Global Security” means a Security issued to evidence all or a part of any series of Securities which is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

herein”, “hereof and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.

Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a president, a chief financial officer, a chief operating officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, the controller or any assistant controller or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

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Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article Three, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and in each case who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security is registered on the Security Register kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

 

4


Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings as set forth in Section 2.05.

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association, partnership or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of capital stock or other interests (including partnership interests) entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, general partners or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (i) such Person; (ii) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person; or (iii) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.

Trustee” means _________________________, and, subject to the provisions of Article Seven, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

“U.S.A. Patriot Act” means the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107-56, as amended and signed into law October 26, 2001.

ARTICLE 2

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND

EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

Section 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities

(a) The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

(1) the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

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(3) the maturity date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable;

(4) the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the certificate of authentication for such series;

(5) the applicability of any guarantees;

(6) whether or not the Securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

(7) whether the Securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

(8) if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such Securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

(9) the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

(10) the Company’s right, if any, to defer the payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

(11) if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, the Company may at its option, redeem the series of Securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

(12) the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which the Company is obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the Securityholder’s option to purchase, the series of Securities and the currency or currency unit in which the Securities are payable;

(13) the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable, if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof;

(14) any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

 

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(15) whether the Securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a Global Security or Securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such Global Security or Securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual Securities; and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities;

(16) if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange, which may, without limitation, include the payment of cash as well as the delivery of securities;

(17) if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

(18) additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the series of Securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

(19) additions to or changes in the Events of Default with respect to the Securities and any change in the right of the Trustee or the Securityholders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such Securities to be due and payable;

(20) additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

(21) additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture;

(22) additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of this Indenture both with and without the consent of Securityholders of Securities issued under this Indenture;

(23) the currency of payment of Securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

(24) whether interest will be payable in cash or additional Securities at the Company’s or the Securityholders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

(25) the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

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(26) any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series; and

(27) any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the Securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of this Indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officer’s Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

Section 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, and they may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

Section 2.03 Denominations: Provisions for Payment

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(13). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. Subject to Section 2.01(a)(23), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption or repurchase thereof prior to maturity, and any cash amount due upon conversion or exchange thereof, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

 

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The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

(1) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be sent, to each Securityholder not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been sent as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register on such special record date.

(2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

 

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Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities and any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the first day of the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

Section 2.04 Execution and Authentications

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by one of its Officers. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature.

The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an Officer (at the time of execution), notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such an officer of the Company. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by an Officer, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

Upon the Company’s delivery of any such authentication order to the Trustee at any time after the initial issuance of Securities under this Indenture, the Trustee shall be provided with, and (subject to Sections 315(a) through 315(d) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall be fully protected in relying upon, (1) an Opinion of Counsel or reliance letter and (2) an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent to the execution, authentication and delivery of such Securities are in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

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Section 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange

(a) Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

(b) The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution or Supplemental Indenture (the “Security Registrar”).

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

The Company initially appoints the Trustee as the initial Security Registrar for each series of Securities.

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

(c) Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, no service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series or repurchase, conversion or exchange of less than the entire principal amount of a Security, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

(d) The Company and the Security Registrar shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the sending of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such sending, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions

 

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thereof called for redemption or surrendered for repurchase, but not validly withdrawn, other than the unredeemed portion of any such Securities being redeemed in part or not surrendered for repurchase, as the case may be. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

The Trustee shall have no obligation or duty to monitor, determine or inquire as to compliance with any restrictions on transfer imposed under this Indenture or under applicable law with respect to any transfer of any interest in any Security (including any transfers between or among Depositary participants or beneficial owners of interests in any Global Security) other than to require delivery of such certificates and other documentation or evidence as are expressly required by, and to do so if and when expressly required by the terms of, this Indenture, and to examine the same to determine substantial compliance as to form with the express requirements hereof.

Section 2.06 Temporary Securities

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the Securityholders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

Section 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer

 

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of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

Section 2.08 Cancellation

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, repurchase, exchange, registration of transfer or conversion shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent (or any other applicable agent), be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.09 Benefits of Indenture

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

 

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Section 2.10 Authenticating Agent

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption, repurchase or conversion thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

Section 2.11 Global Securities

(a) If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction (or if the Depositary names the Trustee as its custodian, retained by the Trustee), and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

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(c) If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, or if an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing and the Company has received a request from the Depositary or from the Trustee, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and, subject to Section 2.04, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officer’s Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

Section 2.12 CUSIP Numbers

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Securityholders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers.

 

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ARTICLE 3

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

Section 3.01 Redemption

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

Section 3.02 Notice of Redemption

(a) In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with any right the Company reserved for itself to do so pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing (or with regard to any Global Security held in book entry form, by electronic mail in accordance with the applicable procedures of the Depositary), a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such Securityholders, unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed. Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officer’s Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

Each such notice of redemption shall identify the Securities to be redeemed (including CUSIP numbers, if any), specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is from a sinking fund, if such is the case. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed.

In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

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(b) If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 45 days’ notice (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Securities to be redeemed shall be selected, by lot, on a pro rata basis, or in such other manner as the Company shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part. The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by an Officer, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable. In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

Section 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption

(a) If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to, but excluding, the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to, but excluding, the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an Interest Payment Date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

(b) Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the Securityholder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

Section 3.04 Sinking Fund

The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

 

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The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

Section 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

Section 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund

Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities (unless a shorter period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officer’s Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date shall be selected in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and the Company shall cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

ARTICLE 4

COVENANTS

Section 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities. Payments of principal on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check drawn on and mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions to the Trustee

 

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no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date. Payments of interest on the Securities may be made at the time provided herein and established with respect to such Securities by U.S. dollar check mailed to the address of the Securityholder entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the Security Register, or U.S. dollar wire transfer to, a U.S. dollar account if such Securityholder shall have furnished wire instructions in writing to the Security Registrar and the Trustee no later than 15 days prior to the relevant payment date.

Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by any officer authorized to sign an Officer’s Certificate and delivered to the Trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands. The Company initially appoints the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as its paying agent with respect to the Securities.

Section 4.03 Paying Agents

(a) If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

(2) that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

(3) that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

 

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(4) that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

(b) If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

(c) Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by the Company or any paying agent to the Trustee, the Company or such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

Section 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

ARTICLE 5

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

Section 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders

The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) within 15 days after each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

 

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Section 5.02 Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders

(a) The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

(b) The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

(c) Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities, and, in connection with any such communications, the Trustee shall satisfy its obligations under Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the provisions of Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 5.03 Reports by the Company

(a) The Company will at all times comply with Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act. The Company covenants and agrees to provide (which delivery may be via electronic mail) to the Trustee within 30 days, after the Company files the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company is required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any correspondence filed with the Commission or any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission; and provided further, that so long as such filings by the Company are available on the Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval System (EDGAR), or any successor system, such filings shall be deemed to have been filed with the Trustee for purposes hereof without any further action required by the Company. For the avoidance of doubt, a failure by the Company to file annual reports, information and other reports with the Commission within the time period prescribed thereof by the Commission shall not be deemed a breach of this Section 5.03.

(b) Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under Section 5.03 is for informational purposes only and the information and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein, or determinable from information contained therein including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants thereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on an Officer’s Certificate). The Trustee is under no duty to examine any such reports, information or

 

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documents delivered to the Trustee or filed with the Commission via EDGAR to ensure compliance with the provision of this Indenture or to ascertain the correctness or otherwise of the information or the statements contained therein. The Trustee shall have no responsibility or duty whatsoever to ascertain or determine whether the above referenced filings with the Commission on EDGAR (or any successor system) has occurred.

Section 5.04 Reports by the Trustee

(a) If required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee, within sixty (60) days after each May 1, shall send to the Securityholders a brief report dated as of such May 1, which complies with Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

(b) The Trustee shall comply with Section 313(b) and 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

(c) A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each securities exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and also with the Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any securities exchange.

ARTICLE 6

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

Section 6.01 Events of Default

(a) Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:

(1) the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

(2) the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

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(3) the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

(4) the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 days.

(b) In each and every such case (other than an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above), unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in clause (4) or clause (5) above occurs, the principal of and accrued and unpaid interest on all the Securities of that series shall automatically be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the holders of the Securities.

(c) At any time after the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that such payment is enforceable under applicable law, upon overdue installments of interest, at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series to the date of such payment or deposit) and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06, and (ii) any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal on (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest on Securities of that series that shall not have become due by their terms, shall have been remedied or waived as provided in Section 6.06.

 

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No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

(d) In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

Section 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee

(a) The Company covenants that (i) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 days, or (ii) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

(b) If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law or equity out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

(c) In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affecting the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the

 

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holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under the Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

(d) All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in the Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any Securityholder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

Section 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected

Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon of the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

FIRST: To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06;

SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively; and

 

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THIRD: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Company or any other Person lawfully entitled thereto.

Section 6.04 Limitation on Suits

No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such Securityholder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as Trustee hereunder; (iii) such Securityholder or Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request; (iv) the Trustee for 90 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 90 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request.

Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary or any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

Section 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver

(a) Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

 

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(b) No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or an acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

Section 6.06 Control by Securityholders

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or subject the Trustee in its sole discretion to personal liability. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed, subject to the Trustee’s duties under the Trust Indenture Act, would involve the Trustee in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the Securityholders not involved in the proceeding. The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding affected thereby, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)). Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses

 

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made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

ARTICLE 7

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

Section 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee

(a) The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

(b) No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(i) prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

(A) the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

(B) in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

 

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(ii) the Trustee shall not be liable to any Securityholder or to any other Person for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

(iii) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series;

(iv) none of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it;

(v) The Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the performance of its powers or duties hereunder;

(vi) The permissive right of the Trustee to do things enumerated in this Indenture shall not be construed as a duty of the Trustee; and

(vii) No Trustee shall have any duty or responsibility for any act or omission of any other Trustee appointed with respect to a series of Securities hereunder.

Section 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

(a) The Trustee may conclusively rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

(b) Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company by any authorized Officer of the Company (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);

(c) The Trustee may consult with counsel and the opinion or written advice of such counsel or, if requested, any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

 

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(d) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity reasonably acceptable to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived), to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs;

(e) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

(f) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents or inquire as to the performance by the Company of one of its covenants under this Indenture, unless requested in writing so to do by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the particular series affected thereby (determined as provided in Section 8.04); provided, however, that if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require security or indemnity reasonably acceptable to the Trustee against such costs, expenses or liabilities as a condition to so proceeding. The reasonable expense of every such examination shall be paid by the Company or, if paid by the Trustee, shall be repaid by the Company upon demand;

(g) The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder;

(h) In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances;

(i) In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, indirect, punitive or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit) irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action; and

 

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(j) The Trustee agrees to accept and act upon instructions or directions pursuant to this Indenture sent by unsecured e-mail, facsimile transmission or other similar unsecured electronic methods; provided, however, that such instructions or directions shall be signed by an authorized representative of the party providing such instructions or directions. If the party elects to give the Trustee e-mail or facsimile instructions (or instructions by a similar electronic method) and the Trustee in its discretion elects to act upon such instructions, the Trustee’s understanding of such instructions shall be deemed controlling. The Trustee shall not be liable for any losses, costs or expenses arising directly or indirectly from the Trustee’s reliance upon and compliance with such instructions notwithstanding such instructions conflict or are inconsistent with a subsequent written instruction. The party providing electronic instructions agrees to assume all risks arising out of the use of such electronic methods to submit instructions and directions to the Trustee, including without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized instructions, and the risk or interception and misuse by third parties. The Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to furnish the Trustee with Officer’s Certificates, Company Orders and any other matters or directions pursuant to this Indenture;

(k) The rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder and under the Securities, and each agent, custodian or other person employed to act under this Indenture; and

(l) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any Default or Event of Default (other than an Event of Default constituting the failure to pay the interest on, or the principal of, the Securities if the Trustee also serves as the paying agent for such Securities) until the Trustee shall have received written notification in the manner set forth in this Indenture or a Responsible Officer of the Trustee shall have obtained actual knowledge.

Section 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities

(a) The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same. The Trustee shall not be responsible for any statement in any registration statement, prospectus, or any other document in connection with the sale of Securities. The Trustee shall not be responsible for any rating on the Securities or any action or omission of any rating agency.

(b) The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

(c) The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.

 

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Section 7.04 May Hold Securities

The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.

Section 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust

Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.

Section 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement

(a) The Company shall pay to the Trustee for each of its capacities hereunder from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

(b) The Company shall indemnify each of the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder against any loss, liability or expense (including the cost of defending itself and including the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel) incurred by it except as set forth in Section 7.06(c) in the exercise or performance of its powers, rights or duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have one separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

(c) The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through negligence or bad faith.

(d) To ensure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities on all funds or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of or interest on particular Securities. When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services in connection with an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(4) or (5), the expenses (including the reasonable fees and expenses of its counsel) and the compensation for services in connection therewith are to constitute expenses of administration under any bankruptcy law. The provisions of this Section 7.06 shall survive the termination of this Indenture and the resignation or removal of the Trustee.

 

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Section 7.07 Reliance on Officer’s Certificate

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it reasonably necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

Section 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests

If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility

There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any state or territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least fifty million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by federal, state, territorial, or District of Columbia authority.

If such corporation or other Person publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation or other Person shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. The Company may not, nor may any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company, serve as Trustee. In case at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 7.10.

Section 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor

(a) The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and the Securityholders of such series. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days

 

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after the sending of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

(b) In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:

(i) the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.08 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or

(ii) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.09 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or

(iii) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation;

then, in any such case, the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

(c) The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.

(d) Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.11.

(e) Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.

 

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Section 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor

(a) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of any amounts due to it pursuant to the provisions of Section 7.06, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all the rights, powers, and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.

(b) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor trustee shall accept such appointment and which (i) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates, (ii) shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (iii) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture, and each such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates.

(c) Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.

 

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(d) No successor trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.

(e) Upon acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee as provided in this Section, the Company shall send notice of the succession of such trustee hereunder to the Securityholders. If the Company fails to send such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be sent at the expense of the Company.

Section 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business

Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all the corporate trust business of the Trustee, including the administration of the trust created by this Indenture, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 7.08 and eligible under the provisions of Section 7.09, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.

Section 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company

The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

Section 7.14 Notice of Default.

If any Event of Default occurs and is continuing and if such Event of Default is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall send to each Securityholder in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act notice of the Event of Default within the earlier of 90 days after it occurs and 30 days after it is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee or written notice of it is received by the Trustee, unless such Event of Default has been cured; provided, however, that, except in the case of a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the interest of the Securityholders.

 

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ARTICLE 8

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

Section 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders

Whenever in this Indenture it is provided that the holders of a majority or specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series may take any action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), the fact that at the time of taking any such action the holders of such majority or specified percentage of that series have joined therein may be evidenced by any instrument or any number of instruments of similar tenor executed by such holders of Securities of that series in person or by agent or proxy appointed in writing.

If the Company shall solicit from the Securityholders of any series any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, as evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate, fix in advance a record date for such series for the determination of Securityholders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Securityholders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Securityholders for the purposes of determining whether Securityholders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities of that series have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be computed as of the record date; provided, however, that no such authorization, agreement or consent by such Securityholders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.

Section 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders

Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, proof of the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder (such proof will not require notarization) or his or her agent or proxy and proof of the holding by any Person of any of the Securities shall be sufficient if made in the following manner:

(a) The fact and date of the execution by any such Person of any instrument may be proved in any reasonable manner acceptable to the Trustee.

(b) The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register of such Securities or by a certificate of the Security Registrar thereof.

The Trustee may require such additional proof of any matter referred to in this Section as it shall deem necessary.

 

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Section 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners

Prior to the due presentment for registration of transfer of any Security, the Company, the Trustee, any paying agent and any Security Registrar may deem and treat the Person in whose name such Security shall be registered upon the books of the Security Registrar as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notice of ownership or writing thereon made by anyone other than the Security Registrar) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, premium, if any, and (subject to Section 2.03) interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any paying agent nor any Security Registrar shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

Section 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded

In determining whether the holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Securities of a particular series have concurred in any direction, consent or waiver under this Indenture, the Securities of that series that are owned by the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities of such series that the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. The Securities so owned that have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding for the purposes of this Section, if the pledgee shall establish to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not a Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company or any such other obligor. In case of a dispute as to such right, any decision by the Trustee taken upon the advice of counsel shall be full protection to the Trustee.

Section 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders

At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 8.01, of the taking of any action by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any holder of a Security of that series that is shown by the evidence to be included in the Securities the holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice with the Trustee, and upon proof of holding as provided in Section 8.02, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid any such action taken by the holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such holder and upon all future holders and owners of such Security, and of any Security issued in exchange therefor, on registration of transfer thereof or in place thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon such Security. Any action taken by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Company, the Trustee and the holders of all the Securities of that series.

 

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ARTICLE 9

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

Section 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders

In addition to any supplemental indenture otherwise authorized by this Indenture, the Company and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect), without the consent of the Securityholders, for one or more of the following purposes:

(a) to cure any ambiguity, defect, or inconsistency herein or in the Securities of any series;

(b) to comply with Article Ten;

(c) to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

(d) to add to the covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions relating to the Company for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series), to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an Event of Default, or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company;

(e) to add to, delete from, or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication, and delivery of Securities, as herein set forth;

(f) to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder in any material respect;

(g) to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the Securities of any series as provided in Section 2.01, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or any series of Securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of Securities;

(h) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee; or

(i) to comply with any requirements of the Commission or any successor in connection with the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations that may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture that affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

 

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Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed by the Company and the Trustee without the consent of the holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 9.02.

Section 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders

With the consent (evidenced as provided in Section 8.01) of the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected by such supplemental indenture or indentures at the time Outstanding, the Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect) for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner not covered by Section 9.01 the rights of the holders of the Securities of such series under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the holders of each Security then Outstanding and affected thereby, (a) extend the fixed maturity of any Securities of any series, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any premium payable upon the redemption thereof or (b) reduce the aforesaid percentage of Securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any such supplemental indenture.

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders of any series affected thereby under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

Section 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures

Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, this Indenture shall, with respect to such series, be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Company and the holders of Securities of the series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

Section 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures

Securities of any series affected by a supplemental indenture, authenticated and delivered after the execution of such supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Section 10.01, may bear a notation in form approved by the Company, provided such form meets the requirements of any securities exchange upon which such series may be listed, as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of that series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Board of Directors, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Company, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of that series then Outstanding.

 

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Section 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures

Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by its Board Resolutions authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders required to consent thereto as aforesaid, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion but shall not be obligated to enter into such supplemental indenture. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, shall receive an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article is authorized or permitted by the terms of this Article and that all conditions precedent to the execution of the supplemental indenture have been complied with; provided, however, that such Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel need not be provided in connection with the execution of a supplemental indenture that establishes the terms of a series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

Promptly after the execution by the Company and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Company shall (or shall direct the Trustee to) send a notice, setting forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture, to the Securityholders of all series affected thereby .as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Any failure of the Company to send, or cause the sending of, such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

ARTICLE 10

SUCCESSOR ENTITY

Section 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc.

Nothing contained in this Indenture shall prevent any consolidation or merger of the Company with or into any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company) or successive consolidations or mergers in which the Company or its successor or successors shall be a party or parties, or shall prevent any sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition of the property of the Company or its successor or successors as an entirety, or substantially as an entirety, to any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company or its successor or successors); provided, however, the Company hereby covenants and agrees that, upon any such consolidation or merger (in each case, if the Company is not the survivor of such transaction) or any such sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition (other than a sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition to a Subsidiary of the Company), the due and punctual payment of the principal of (premium, if any) and interest on all of the Securities of all series in accordance with the terms of each series, according to their tenor, and the due and punctual performance and

 

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observance of all the covenants and conditions of this Indenture with respect to each series or established with respect to such series pursuant to Section 2.01 to be kept or performed by the Company shall be expressly assumed, by supplemental indenture (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act, as then in effect) reasonably satisfactory in form to the Trustee executed and delivered to the Trustee by the entity formed by such consolidation, or into which the Company shall have been merged, or by the entity which shall have acquired such property.

Section 10.02 Successor Entity Substituted

(a) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition and upon the assumption by the successor entity by supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee and satisfactory in form to the Trustee, of the obligations set forth under Section 10.01 on all of the Securities of all series Outstanding, such successor entity shall succeed to and be substituted for the Company with the same effect as if it had been named as the Company herein, and thereupon the predecessor corporation shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

(b) In case of any such consolidation, merger, sale, conveyance, transfer or other disposition, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Securities thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate.

(c) Nothing contained in this Article shall require any action by the Company in the case of a consolidation or merger of any Person into the Company where the Company is the survivor of such transaction, or the acquisition by the Company, by purchase or otherwise, of all or any part of the property of any other Person (whether or not affiliated with the Company).

ARTICLE 11

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

Section 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture

If at any time: (a) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of a series theretofore authenticated and not delivered to the Trustee for cancellation (other than any Securities that shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.07 and Securities for whose payment money or Governmental Obligations have theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company and thereupon repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 11.05); or (b) all such Securities of a particular series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and the Company shall deposit or cause to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount in moneys or Governmental Obligations or a combination thereof, sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of that

 

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series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder with respect to such series by the Company then this Indenture shall thereupon cease to be of further effect with respect to such series except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4.01, 4.02, 4.03, 7.10, 11.05 and 13.04, that shall survive until the date of maturity or redemption date, as the case may be, and Sections 7.06 and 11.05, that shall survive to such date and thereafter, and the Trustee, on demand of the Company and at the cost and expense of the Company shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series.

Section 11.02 Discharge of Obligations

If at any time all such Securities of a particular series not heretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or that have not become due and payable as described in Section 11.01 shall have been paid by the Company by depositing irrevocably with the Trustee as trust funds moneys or an amount of Governmental Obligations sufficient to pay at maturity or upon redemption all such Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal (and premium, if any) and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company with respect to such series, then after the date such moneys or Governmental Obligations, as the case may be, are deposited with the Trustee the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to such series shall cease to be of further effect except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4,01, 4.02, 4,03, 7.06, 7.10, 11.05 and 13.04 hereof that shall survive until such Securities shall mature and be paid.

Thereafter, Sections 7.06 and 11.05 shall survive.

Section 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust

All moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Sections 11.01 or 11.02 shall be held in trust and shall be available for payment as due, either directly or through any paying agent (including the Company acting as its own paying agent), to the holders of the particular series of Securities for the payment or redemption of which such moneys or Governmental Obligations have been deposited with the Trustee.

Section 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents

In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture all moneys or Governmental Obligations then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations.

 

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Section 11.05 Repayment to Company

Any moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with any paying agent or the Trustee, or then held by the Company, in trust for payment of principal of or premium, if any, or interest on the Securities of a particular series that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the holders of such Securities for at least two years after the date upon which the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on such Securities shall have respectively become due and payable, or such other shorter period set forth in applicable escheat or abandoned or unclaimed property law, shall be repaid to the Company on May 31 of each year or upon the Company’s request or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust; and thereupon the paying agent and the Trustee shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations, and the holder of any of the Securities entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as a general creditor, look only to the Company for the payment thereof.

ARTICLE 12

IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

Section 12.01 No Recourse

No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Company or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

 

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ARTICLE 13

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Section 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns

All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements in this Indenture made by or on behalf of the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

Section 13.02 Actions by Successor

Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board, committee or officer of the Company shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful successor of the Company.

Section 13.03 Surrender of Company Powers

The Company by instrument in writing executed by authority of its Board of Directors and delivered to the Trustee may surrender any of the powers reserved to the Company, and thereupon such power so surrendered shall terminate both as to the Company and as to any successor corporation.

Section 13.04 Notices

Except as otherwise expressly provided herein, any notice, request or demand that by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given, made or served by the Trustee, the Security Registrar, any paying or other agent under this Indenture or by the holders of Securities or by any other Person pursuant to this Indenture to or on the Company may be given or served by being deposited in first class mail, postage prepaid, addressed (until another address is filed in writing by the Company with the Trustee), as follows:                                                                                      . Any notice, election, request or demand by the Company or any Securityholder or by any other Person pursuant to this Indenture to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made in writing at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

Section 13.05 Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver

This Indenture and each Security shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

EACH PARTY HERETO, AND EACH HOLDER OF A SECURITY BY ACCEPTANCE THEREOF, HEREBY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY RIGHT IT MAY HAVE TO A TRIAL BY JURY IN RESPECT OF ANY LITIGATION DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY ARISING OUT OF, UNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS INDENTURE.

 

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Section 13.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt

It is intended that the Securities will be treated as indebtedness and not as equity for federal income tax purposes. The provisions of this Indenture shall be interpreted to further this intention.

Section 13.07 Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent

(a) Upon any application or demand by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture (other than the certificate to be delivered pursuant to Section 13.12) relating to the proposed action have been complied with and, if requested, an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

(b) Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant in this Indenture (other than the certificate to be delivered pursuant to Section 13.12 of this Indenture or Section 314(a)(1) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall include (i) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition; (ii) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based; (iii) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, he has made such examination or investigation as is reasonably necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and (iv) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

Section 13.08 Payments on Business Days

Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, in any case where the date of maturity of interest or principal of any Security or the date of redemption of any Security shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal (and premium, if any) may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the nominal date of maturity or redemption, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such nominal date.

 

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Section 13.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act

If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with the duties imposed by Section 318(c) of the Trust Indenture Act, such imposed duties shall control.

Section 13.10 Counterparts

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. Signatures of the parties hereto transmitted by facsimile or PDF shall be deemed to be their original signatures for all purposes.

Section 13.11 Separability

In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.

Section 13.12 Compliance Certificates

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year during which any Securities of any series were outstanding, an officer’s certificate stating whether or not the signers know of any Event of Default that occurred during such fiscal year. Such certificate shall contain a certification from the principal executive officer, principal financial officer or principal accounting officer of the Company that a review has been conducted of the activities of the Company and the Company’s performance under this Indenture and that the Company has complied with all conditions and covenants under this Indenture. For purposes of this Section 13.12, such compliance shall be determined without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided under this Indenture. If the officer of the Company signing such certificate has knowledge of such an Event of Default, the certificate shall describe any such Event of Default and its status.

Section 13.13 U.S.A Patriot Act

The parties hereto acknowledge that in accordance with Section 326 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, the Trustee, like all financial institutions and in order to help fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering, is required to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that establishes a relationship or opens an account with the Trustee. The parties to this Indenture agree that they will provide the Trustee with such information as it may request in order for the Trustee to satisfy the requirements of the U.S.A. Patriot Act.

 

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Section 13.14 Force Majeure

In no event shall the Trustee, the Security Registrar, any paying agent or any other agent under this Indenture be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions or utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; it being understood that the Trustee, the Security Registrar, any paying agent or any other agent under this Indenture shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

Section 13.15 Table of Contents; Headings

The table of contents and headings of the articles and sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not intended to be considered a part hereof, and will not modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed all as of the day and year first above written.

 

LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC.

By:

   

Name:

   

Title:

   

[TRUSTEE], as Trustee

By:

   

Name:

   

Title:

   

 

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CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE (1)

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as Amended

  

Section of Indenture

310(a)    7.09
310(b)    7.08
   7.10
310(c)    Inapplicable
311(a)    7.13
311(b)    7.13
311(c)    Inapplicable
312(a)    5.01
   5.02(a)
312(b)    5.02(c)
312(c)    5.02(c)
313(a)    5.04(a)
313(b)    5.04(b)
313(c)    5.04(a)
   5.04(b)
313(d)    5.04(c)
314(a)    5.03
   13.12
314(b)    Inapplicable
314(c)    13.07(a)
314(d)    Inapplicable
314(e)    13.07(b)
314(f)    Inapplicable
315(a)    7.01(a)
   7.01(b)
315(b)    7.14
315(c)    7.01
315(d)    7.01(b)
315(e)    6.07
316(a)    6.06
   8.04
316(b)    6.04
316(c)    8.01
317(a)    6.02
317(b)    4.03
318(a)    13.09

 

(1)

This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

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EX-4.6

Exhibit 4.6

LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC.

AND

_____________, AS WARRANT AGENT

FORM OF COMMON STOCK

WARRANT AGREEMENT

DATED AS OF __________


LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC.

FORM OF COMMON STOCK WARRANT AGREEMENT

THIS COMMON STOCK WARRANT AGREEMENT (this “Agreement”), dated as of [•], between LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC. a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [•], a [corporation] [national banking association] organized and existing under the laws of [•] and having a corporate trust office in [•], as warrant agent (the “Warrant Agent”).

WHEREAS, the Company proposes to sell [If Warrants are sold with other securities —[title of such other securities being offered] (the “Other Securities”) with] warrant certificates evidencing one or more warrants (the “Warrants” or, individually, a “Warrant”) representing the right to purchase Common Stock of the Company, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Warrant Securities”), such warrant certificates and other warrant certificates issued pursuant to this Agreement being herein called the “Warrant Certificates”; and

WHEREAS, the Company desires the Warrant Agent to act on behalf of the Company, and the Warrant Agent is willing so to act, in connection with the issuance, registration, transfer, exchange, exercise and replacement of the Warrant Certificates, and in this Agreement wishes to set forth, among other things, the form and provisions of the Warrant Certificates and the terms and conditions on which they may be issued, registered, transferred, exchanged, exercised and replaced.

NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and of the mutual agreements herein contained, the parties hereto agree as follows:

ARTICLE 1

ISSUANCE OF WARRANTS AND EXECUTION AND

DELIVERY OF WARRANT CERTIFICATES

1.1 Issuance of Warrants. [If Warrants alone —Upon issuance, each Warrant Certificate shall evidence one or more Warrants.] [If Other Securities and Warrants —Warrant Certificates will be issued in connection with the issuance of the Other Securities but shall be separately transferable and each Warrant Certificate shall evidence one or more Warrants.] Each Warrant evidenced thereby shall represent the right, subject to the provisions contained herein and therein, to purchase one Warrant Security. [If Other Securities and Warrants —Warrant Certificates will be issued with the Other Securities and each Warrant Certificate will evidence [•] Warrants for each [$[•] principal amount] [[•] shares] of Other Securities issued.]

1.2 Execution and Delivery of Warrant Certificates. Each Warrant Certificate, whenever issued, shall be in registered form substantially in the form set forth in Exhibit A hereto, shall be dated the date of its countersignature by the Warrant Agent and may have such letters, numbers, or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the officers of the Company executing the same may approve (execution thereof to be conclusive evidence of such approval) and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which the Warrants may be listed, or to conform to usage. The Warrant Certificates shall be signed on behalf of the Company by any of its present or future chief executive officers, presidents, senior vice presidents, vice presidents, chief financial officers, chief legal officers, treasurers, assistant treasurers, controllers, assistant controllers, secretaries or assistant secretaries under its corporate seal reproduced thereon. Such signatures may be manual or facsimile signatures of such authorized officers and may be imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Warrant Certificates. The seal of the Company may be in the form of a facsimile thereof and may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Warrant Certificates.

 

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No Warrant Certificate shall be valid for any purpose, and no Warrant evidenced thereby shall be exercisable, until such Warrant Certificate has been countersigned by the manual signature of the Warrant Agent. Such signature by the Warrant Agent upon any Warrant Certificate executed by the Company shall be conclusive evidence that the Warrant Certificate so countersigned has been duly issued hereunder.

In case any officer of the Company who shall have signed any of the Warrant Certificates either manually or by facsimile signature shall cease to be such officer before the Warrant Certificates so signed shall have been countersigned and delivered by the Warrant Agent, such Warrant Certificates may be countersigned and delivered notwithstanding that the person who signed such Warrant Certificates ceased to be such officer of the Company; and any Warrant Certificate may be signed on behalf of the Company by such persons as, at the actual date of the execution of such Warrant Certificate, shall be the proper officers of the Company, although at the date of the execution of this Agreement any such person was not such officer.

The term “holder” or “holder of a Warrant Certificate” as used herein shall mean any person in whose name at the time any Warrant Certificate shall be registered upon the books to be maintained by the Warrant Agent for that purpose.

1.3 Issuance of Warrant Certificates. Warrant Certificates evidencing the right to purchase Warrant Securities may be executed by the Company and delivered to the Warrant Agent upon the execution of this Agreement or from time to time thereafter. The Warrant Agent shall, upon receipt of Warrant Certificates duly executed on behalf of the Company, countersign such Warrant Certificates and shall deliver such Warrant Certificates to or upon the order of the Company.

ARTICLE 2

WARRANT PRICE, DURATION AND EXERCISE OF WARRANTS

2.1 Warrant Price. During the period specified in Section 2.2, each Warrant shall, subject to the terms of this Agreement and the applicable Warrant Certificate, entitle the holder thereof to purchase the number of Warrant Securities specified in the applicable Warrant Certificate at an exercise price of $[•] per Warrant Security, subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain events, as hereinafter provided. Such purchase price per Warrant Security is referred to in this Agreement as the “Warrant Price.

2.2 Duration of Warrants. Each Warrant may be exercised in whole or in part at any time, as specified herein, on or after [the date thereof] [•] and at or before [•] p.m., [City] time, on [•] or such later date as the Company may designate by notice to the Warrant Agent and the holders of Warrant Certificates mailed to their addresses as set forth in the record books of the Warrant Agent (the “Expiration Date”). Each Warrant not exercised at or before [•] p.m., [City] time, on the Expiration Date shall become void, and all rights of the holder of the Warrant Certificate evidencing such Warrant under this Agreement shall cease.

2.3 Exercise of Warrants.

(a) During the period specified in Section 2.2, the Warrants may be exercised to purchase a whole number of Warrant Securities in registered form by providing certain information as set forth on the reverse side of the Warrant Certificate and by paying in full, in lawful money of the United States of America, [in cash or by certified check or official bank check in New York Clearing House funds]

 

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[by bank wire transfer in immediately available funds] the Warrant Price for each Warrant Security with respect to which a Warrant is being exercised to the Warrant Agent at its corporate trust office, provided that such exercise is subject to receipt within five business days of such payment by the Warrant Agent of the Warrant Certificate with the form of election to purchase Warrant Securities set forth on the reverse side of the Warrant Certificate properly completed and duly executed. The date on which payment in full of the Warrant Price is received by the Warrant Agent shall, subject to receipt of the Warrant Certificate as aforesaid, be deemed to be the date on which the Warrant is exercised; provided, however, that if, at the date of receipt of such Warrant Certificates and payment in full of the Warrant Price, the transfer books for the Warrant Securities purchasable upon the exercise of such Warrants shall be closed, no such receipt of such Warrant Certificates and no such payment of such Warrant Price shall be effective to constitute the person so designated to be named as the holder of record of such Warrant Securities on such date, but shall be effective to constitute such person as the holder of record of such Warrant Securities for all purposes at the opening of business on the next succeeding day on which the transfer books for the Warrant Securities purchasable upon the exercise of such Warrants shall be opened, and the certificates for the Warrant Securities in respect of which such Warrants are then exercised shall be issuable as of the date on such next succeeding day on which the transfer books shall next be opened, and until such date the Company shall be under no duty to deliver any certificate for such Warrant Securities. The Warrant Agent shall deposit all funds received by it in payment of the Warrant Price in an account of the Company maintained with it and shall advise the Company by telephone at the end of each day on which a payment for the exercise of Warrants is received of the amount so deposited to its account. The Warrant Agent shall promptly confirm such telephone advice to the Company in writing.

(b) The Warrant Agent shall, from time to time, as promptly as practicable, advise the Company of (i) the number of Warrant Securities with respect to which Warrants were exercised, (ii) the instructions of each holder of the Warrant Certificates evidencing such Warrants with respect to delivery of the Warrant Securities to which such holder is entitled upon such exercise, (iii) delivery of Warrant Certificates evidencing the balance, if any, of the Warrants for the remaining Warrant Securities after such exercise, and (iv) such other information as the Company shall reasonably require.

(c) As soon as practicable after the exercise of any Warrant, the Company shall issue to or upon the order of the holder of the Warrant Certificate evidencing such Warrant the Warrant Securities to which such holder is entitled, in fully registered form, registered in such name or names as may be directed by such holder. If fewer than all of the Warrants evidenced by such Warrant Certificate are exercised, the Company shall execute, and an authorized officer of the Warrant Agent shall manually countersign and deliver, a new Warrant Certificate evidencing Warrants for the number of Warrant Securities remaining unexercised.

(d) The Company shall not be required to pay any stamp or other tax or other governmental charge required to be paid in connection with any transfer involved in the issue of the Warrant Securities, and in the event that any such transfer is involved, the Company shall not be required to issue or deliver any Warrant Security until such tax or other charge shall have been paid or it has been established to the Company’s satisfaction that no such tax or other charge is due.

(e) Prior to the issuance of any Warrants there shall have been reserved, and the Company shall at all times through the Expiration Date keep reserved, out of its authorized but unissued Warrant Securities, a number of shares sufficient to provide for the exercise of the Warrants.

 

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ARTICLE 3

OTHER PROVISIONS RELATING TO RIGHTS OF HOLDERS OF

WARRANT CERTIFICATES

3.1 No Rights as Warrant Securityholder Conferred by Warrants or Warrant Certificates. No Warrant Certificate or Warrant evidenced thereby shall entitle the holder thereof to any of the rights of a holder of Warrant Securities, including, without limitation, the right to receive the payment of dividends or distributions, if any, on the Warrant Securities or to exercise any voting rights, except to the extent expressly set forth in this Agreement or the applicable Warrant Certificate.

3.2 Lost, Stolen, Mutilated or Destroyed Warrant Certificates. Upon receipt by the Warrant Agent of evidence reasonably satisfactory to it and the Company of the ownership of and the loss, theft, destruction or mutilation of any Warrant Certificate and/or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the Warrant Agent and the Company and, in the case of mutilation, upon surrender of the mutilated Warrant Certificate to the Warrant Agent for cancellation, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Warrant Agent that such Warrant Certificate has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute, and an authorized officer of the Warrant Agent shall manually countersign and deliver, in exchange for or in lieu of the lost, stolen, destroyed or mutilated Warrant Certificate, a new Warrant Certificate of the same tenor and evidencing Warrants for a like number of Warrant Securities. Upon the issuance of any new Warrant Certificate under this Section 3.2, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Warrant Agent) in connection therewith. Every substitute Warrant Certificate executed and delivered pursuant to this Section 3.2 in lieu of any lost, stolen or destroyed Warrant Certificate shall represent an additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the lost, stolen or destroyed Warrant Certificate shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to the benefits of this Agreement equally and proportionately with any and all other Warrant Certificates duly executed and delivered hereunder. The provisions of this Section 3.2 are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement of mutilated, lost, stolen or destroyed Warrant Certificates.

3.3 Holder of Warrant Certificate May Enforce Rights. Notwithstanding any of the provisions of this Agreement, any holder of a Warrant Certificate, without the consent of the Warrant Agent, the holder of any Warrant Securities or the holder of any other Warrant Certificate, may, in such holder’s own behalf and for such holder’s own benefit, enforce, and may institute and maintain any suit, action or proceeding against the Company suitable to enforce, or otherwise in respect of, such holder’s right to exercise the Warrants evidenced by such holder’s Warrant Certificate in the manner provided in such holder’s Warrant Certificate and in this Agreement.

3.4 Adjustments.

(a) In case the Company shall at any time subdivide its outstanding shares of Common Stock into a greater number of shares, the Warrant Price in effect immediately prior to such subdivision shall be proportionately reduced and the number of Warrant Securities purchasable under the Warrants shall be proportionately increased. Conversely, in case the outstanding shares of Common Stock of the Company shall be combined into a smaller number of shares, the Warrant Price in effect immediately prior to such combination shall be proportionately increased and the number of Warrant Securities purchasable under the Warrants shall be proportionately decreased.

(b) If at any time or from time to time the holders of Common Stock (or any shares of stock or other securities at the time receivable upon the exercise of the Warrants) shall have received or become entitled to receive, without payment therefor,

(i) Common Stock or any shares of stock or other securities which are at any time directly or indirectly convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, or any rights or options to subscribe for, purchase or otherwise acquire any of the foregoing by way of dividend or other distribution;

 

4


(ii) any cash paid or payable otherwise than as a cash dividend paid or payable out of the Company’s current or retained earnings;

(iii) any evidence of the Company’s indebtedness or rights to subscribe for or purchase the Company’s indebtedness; or

(iv) Common Stock or additional stock or other securities or property (including cash) by way of spinoff, split-up, reclassification, combination of shares or similar corporate rearrangement (other than shares of Common Stock issued as a stock split or adjustments in respect of which shall be covered by the terms of Section 3.4(a) above), then and in each such case, the holder of each Warrant shall, upon the exercise of the Warrant, be entitled to receive, in addition to the number of Warrant Securities receivable thereupon, and without payment of any additional consideration therefore, the amount of stock and other securities and property (including cash and indebtedness or rights to subscribe for or purchase indebtedness) which such holder would hold on the date of such exercise had such holder been the holder of record of such Warrant Securities as of the date on which holders of Common Stock received or became entitled to receive such shares or all other additional stock and other securities and property.

(c) In case of (i) any reclassification, capital reorganization, or change in the Common Stock of the Company (other than as a result of a subdivision, combination, or stock dividend provided for in Section 3.4(a) or Section 3.4(b) above), (ii) share exchange, merger or similar transaction of the Company with or into another person or entity (other than a share exchange, merger or similar transaction in which the Company is the acquiring or surviving corporation and which does not result in any change in the Common Stock other than the issuance of additional shares of Common Stock) or (iii) the sale, exchange, lease, transfer or other disposition of all or substantially all of the properties and assets of the Company as an entirety (in any such case, a “Reorganization Event”), then, as a condition of such Reorganization Event, lawful provisions shall be made, and duly executed documents evidencing the same from the Company or its successor shall be delivered to the holders of the Warrants, so that the holders of the Warrants shall have the right at any time prior to the expiration of the Warrants to purchase, at a total price equal to that payable upon the exercise of the Warrants, the kind and amount of shares of stock and other securities and property receivable in connection with such Reorganization Event by a holder of the same number of Warrant Securities as were purchasable by the holders of the Warrants immediately prior to such Reorganization Event. In any such case appropriate provisions shall be made with respect to the rights and interests of the holders of the Warrants so that the provisions hereof shall thereafter be applicable with respect to any shares of stock or other securities and property deliverable upon exercise the Warrants, and appropriate adjustments shall be made to the Warrant Price payable hereunder provided the aggregate purchase price shall remain the same. In the case of any transaction described in clauses (ii) and (iii) above, the Company shall thereupon be relieved of any further obligation hereunder or under the Warrants, and the Company as the predecessor corporation may thereupon or at any time thereafter be dissolved, wound up or liquidated. Such successor or assuming entity thereupon may cause to be signed, and may issue either in its own name or in the name of the Company, any or all of the Warrants issuable hereunder which heretofore shall not have been signed by the Company, and may execute and deliver securities in its own name, in fulfillment of its obligations to deliver Warrant Securities upon exercise of the Warrants. All the Warrants so issued shall in all respects have the same legal rank and benefit under this Agreement as the Warrants theretofore or thereafter issued in accordance with the terms of this Agreement as though all of such Warrants had been issued at the date of the execution hereof. In any case of any such Reorganization Event, such changes in phraseology and form (but not in substance) may be made in the Warrants thereafter to be issued as may be appropriate. The Warrant Agent may receive a written opinion of legal counsel as conclusive evidence that any such Reorganization Event complies with the provisions of this Section 3.4.

 

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(d) The Company may, at its option, at any time until the Expiration Date, reduce the then current Warrant Price to any amount deemed appropriate by the Board of Directors of the Company for any period not exceeding twenty consecutive days (as evidenced in a resolution adopted by such Board of Directors), but only upon giving the notices required by Section 3.5 at least ten days prior to taking such action.

(e) Except as herein otherwise expressly provided, no adjustment in the Warrant Price shall be made by reason of the issuance of shares of Common Stock, or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock, or securities carrying the right to purchase any of the foregoing or for any other reason whatsoever.

(f) No fractional Warrant Securities shall be issued upon the exercise of Warrants. If more than one Warrant shall be exercised at one time by the same holder, the number of full Warrant Securities which shall be issuable upon such exercise shall be computed on the basis of the aggregate number of Warrant Securities purchased pursuant to the Warrants so exercised. Instead of any fractional Warrant Security which would otherwise be issuable upon exercise of any Warrant, the Company shall pay a cash adjustment in respect of such fraction in an amount equal to the same fraction of the last reported sale price (or bid price if there were no sales) per Warrant Security, in either case as reported on the principal registered national securities exchange on which the Warrant Securities are listed or admitted to trading on the business day that next precedes the day of exercise or, if the Warrant Securities are not then listed or admitted to trading on any registered national securities exchange, the average of the closing high bid and low asked prices as reported on the OTC Bulletin Board Service (the “OTC Bulletin Board”) operated by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA” ) or, if not available on the OTC Bulletin Board, then the average of the closing high bid and low asked prices as reported on any other U.S. quotation medium or inter-dealer quotation system on such date, or if on any such date the Warrant Securities are not listed or admitted to trading on a registered national securities exchange, are not included in the OTC Bulletin Board, and are not quoted on any other U.S. quotation medium or inter-dealer quotation system, an amount equal to the same fraction of the average of the closing bid and asked prices as furnished by any FINRA member firm selected from time to time by the Company for that purpose at the close of business on the business day that next precedes the day of exercise.

(g) Whenever the Warrant Price then in effect is adjusted as herein provided, the Company shall mail to each holder of the Warrants at such holder’s address as it shall appear on the books of the Company a statement setting forth the adjusted Warrant Price then and thereafter effective under the provisions hereof, together with the facts, in reasonable detail, upon which such adjustment is based.

(h) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary herein, in no event shall the Warrant Price, as adjusted in accordance with the terms hereof, be less than the par value per share of Common Stock.

3.5 Notice to Warrantholders. In case the Company shall (a) effect any dividend or distribution described in Section 3.4(b), (b) effect any Reorganization Event, (c) make any distribution on or in respect of the Common Stock in connection with the dissolution, liquidation or winding up of the Company, or (d) reduce the then current Warrant Price pursuant to Section 3.4(d), then the Company shall mail to each holder of Warrants at such holder’s address as it shall appear on the books of the Warrant Agent, at least ten days prior to the applicable date hereinafter specified, a notice stating (x) the record date for such dividend or distribution, or, if a record is not to be taken, the date as of which the holders of record of Common Stock that will be entitled to such dividend or distribution are to be determined, (y) the date on

 

6


which such Reorganization Event, dissolution, liquidation or winding up is expected to become effective, and the date as of which it is expected that holders of Common Stock of record shall be entitled to exchange their shares of Common Stock for securities or other property deliverable upon such Reorganization Event, dissolution, liquidation or winding up, or (z) the first date on which the then current Warrant Price shall be reduced pursuant to Section 3.4(d). No failure to mail such notice nor any defect therein or in the mailing thereof shall affect any such transaction or any adjustment in the Warrant Price required by Section 3.4.

3.6 [If the Warrants are Subject to Acceleration by the Company, Insert — Acceleration of Warrants by the Company.

(a) At any time on or after [•], the Company shall have the right to accelerate any or all Warrants at any time by causing them to expire at the close of business on the day next preceding a specified date (the “Acceleration Date”), if the Market Price (as hereinafter defined) of the Common Stock equals or exceeds [•] percent ([•]%) of the then effective Warrant Price on any twenty Trading Days (as hereinafter defined) within a period of thirty consecutive Trading Days ending no more than five Trading Days prior to the date on which the Company gives notice to the Warrant Agent of its election to accelerate the Warrants.

(b) (b) Market Price” for each Trading Day shall be, if the Common Stock is listed or admitted to trading on any registered national securities exchange, the last reported sale price, regular way (or, if no such price is reported, the average of the reported closing bid and asked prices, regular way) of Common Stock, in either case as reported on the principal registered national securities exchange on which the Common Stock is listed or admitted to trading or, if not listed or admitted to trading on any registered national securities exchange, the average of the closing high bid and low asked prices as reported on the OTC Bulletin Board operated by FINRA, or if not available on the OTC Bulletin Board, then the average of the closing high bid and low asked prices as reported on any other U.S. quotation medium or inter-dealer quotation system, or if on any such date the shares of Common Stock are not listed or admitted to trading on a registered national securities exchange, are not included in the OTC Bulletin Board, and are not quoted on any other U.S. quotation medium or inter-dealer quotation system, the average of the closing bid and asked prices as furnished by any FINRA member firm selected from time to time by the Company for that purpose. “Trading Day” shall be each Monday through Friday, other than any day on which securities are not traded in the system or on the exchange that is the principal market for the Common Stock, as determined by the Board of Directors of the Company. In the event of an acceleration of less than all of the Warrants, the Warrant Agent shall select the Warrants to be accelerated by lot, pro rata or in such other manner as it deems, in its discretion, to be fair and appropriate.

(c) Notice of an acceleration specifying the Acceleration Date shall be sent by mail first class, postage prepaid, to each registered holder of a Warrant Certificate representing a Warrant accelerated at such holder’s address appearing on the books of the Warrant Agent not more than sixty days nor less than thirty days before the Acceleration Date. Such notice of an acceleration also shall be given no more than twenty days, and no less than ten days, prior to the mailing of notice to registered holders of Warrants pursuant to this Section 3.6, by publication at least once in a newspaper of general circulation in the City of New York.

(d) Any Warrant accelerated may be exercised until [•] p.m., [City] time, on the business day next preceding the Acceleration Date. The Warrant Price shall be payable as provided in Section 2.]

 

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ARTICLE 4

EXCHANGE AND TRANSFER OF WARRANT CERTIFICATES

4.1 Exchange and Transfer of Warrant Certificates. Upon surrender at the corporate trust office of the Warrant Agent, Warrant Certificates evidencing Warrants may be exchanged for Warrant Certificates in other denominations evidencing such Warrants or the transfer thereof may be registered in whole or in part; provided that such other Warrant Certificates evidence Warrants for the same aggregate number of Warrant Securities as the Warrant Certificates so surrendered. The Warrant Agent shall keep, at its corporate trust office, books in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, it shall register Warrant Certificates and exchanges and transfers of outstanding Warrant Certificates, upon surrender of the Warrant Certificates to the Warrant Agent at its corporate trust office for exchange or registration of transfer, properly endorsed or accompanied by appropriate instruments of registration of transfer and written instructions for transfer, all in form satisfactory to the Company and the Warrant Agent. No service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Warrant Certificates, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any stamp or other tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any such exchange or registration of transfer. Whenever any Warrant Certificates are so surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, an authorized officer of the Warrant Agent shall manually countersign and deliver to the person or persons entitled thereto a Warrant Certificate or Warrant Certificates duly authorized and executed by the Company, as so requested. The Warrant Agent shall not be required to effect any exchange or registration of transfer which will result in the issuance of a Warrant Certificate evidencing a Warrant for a fraction of a Warrant Security or a number of Warrants for a whole number of Warrant Securities and a fraction of a Warrant Security. All Warrant Certificates issued upon any exchange or registration of transfer of Warrant Certificates shall be the valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same obligations and entitled to the same benefits under this Agreement as the Warrant Certificate surrendered for such exchange or registration of transfer.

4.2 Treatment of Holders of Warrant Certificates. The Company, the Warrant Agent and all other persons may treat the registered holder of a Warrant Certificate as the absolute owner thereof for any purpose and as the person entitled to exercise the rights represented by the Warrants evidenced thereby, any notice to the contrary notwithstanding.

4.3 Cancellation of Warrant Certificates. Any Warrant Certificate surrendered for exchange, registration of transfer or exercise of the Warrants evidenced thereby shall, if surrendered to the Company, be delivered to the Warrant Agent and all Warrant Certificates surrendered or so delivered to the Warrant Agent shall be promptly canceled by the Warrant Agent and shall not be reissued and, except as expressly permitted by this Agreement, no Warrant Certificate shall be issued hereunder in exchange therefor or in lieu thereof. The Warrant Agent shall deliver to the Company from time to time or otherwise dispose of canceled Warrant Certificates in a manner satisfactory to the Company.

ARTICLE 5

CONCERNING THE WARRANT AGENT

5.1 Warrant Agent. The Company hereby appoints [•] as Warrant Agent of the Company in respect of the Warrants and the Warrant Certificates upon the terms and subject to the conditions herein set forth, and [•] hereby accepts such appointment. The Warrant Agent shall have the powers and authority granted to and conferred upon it in the Warrant Certificates and hereby and such further powers and authority to act on behalf of the Company as the Company may hereafter grant to or confer upon it. All of the terms and provisions with respect to such powers and authority contained in the Warrant Certificates are subject to and governed by the terms and provisions hereof.

 

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5.2 Conditions of Warrant Agents Obligations. The Warrant Agent accepts its obligations herein set forth upon the terms and conditions hereof, including the following to all of which the Company agrees and to all of which the rights hereunder of the holders from time to time of the Warrant Certificates shall be subject:

(a) Compensation and Indemnification. The Company agrees promptly to pay the Warrant Agent the compensation to be agreed upon with the Company for all services rendered by the Warrant Agent and to reimburse the Warrant Agent for reasonable out-of-pocket expenses (including reasonable counsel fees) incurred without negligence, bad faith or willful misconduct by the Warrant Agent in connection with the services rendered hereunder by the Warrant Agent. The Company also agrees to indemnify the Warrant Agent for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence, bad faith or willful misconduct on the part of the Warrant Agent, arising out of or in connection with its acting as Warrant Agent hereunder, including the reasonable costs and expenses of defending against any claim of such liability.

(b) Agent for the Company. In acting under this Agreement and in connection with the Warrant Certificates, the Warrant Agent is acting solely as agent of the Company and does not assume any obligations or relationship of agency or trust for or with any of the holders of Warrant Certificates or beneficial owners of Warrants.

(c) Counsel. The Warrant Agent may consult with counsel satisfactory to it, which may include counsel for the Company, and the written advice of such counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with the advice of such counsel.

(d) Documents. The Warrant Agent shall be protected and shall incur no liability for or in respect of any action taken or omitted by it in reliance upon any Warrant Certificate, notice, direction, consent, certificate, affidavit, statement or other paper or document reasonably believed by it to be genuine and to have been presented or signed by the proper parties.

(e) Certain Transactions. The Warrant Agent, and its officers, directors and employees, may become the owner of, or acquire any interest in, Warrants, with the same rights that it or they would have if it were not the Warrant Agent hereunder, and, to the extent permitted by applicable law, it or they may engage or be interested in any financial or other transaction with the Company and may act on, or as depositary, trustee or agent for, any committee or body of holders of Warrant Securities or other obligations of the Company as freely as if it were not the Warrant Agent hereunder. Nothing in this Agreement shall be deemed to prevent the Warrant Agent from acting as trustee under any indenture to which the Company is a party.

(f) No Liability for Interest. Unless otherwise agreed with the Company, the Warrant Agent shall have no liability for interest on any monies at any time received by it pursuant to any of the provisions of this Agreement or of the Warrant Certificates.

(g) No Liability for Invalidity. The Warrant Agent shall have no liability with respect to any invalidity of this Agreement or any of the Warrant Certificates (except as to the Warrant Agent’s countersignature thereon).

(h) No Responsibility for Representations. The Warrant Agent shall not be responsible for any of the recitals or representations herein or in the Warrant Certificates (except as to the Warrant Agent’s countersignature thereon), all of which are made solely by the Company.

 

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(i) No Implied Obligations. The Warrant Agent shall be obligated to perform only such duties as are herein and in the Warrant Certificates specifically set forth and no implied duties or obligations shall be read into this Agreement or the Warrant Certificates against the Warrant Agent. The Warrant Agent shall not be under any obligation to take any action hereunder which may tend to involve it in any expense or liability, the payment of which within a reasonable time is not, in its reasonable opinion, assured to it. The Warrant Agent shall not be accountable or under any duty or responsibility for the use by the Company of any of the Warrant Certificates authenticated by the Warrant Agent and delivered by it to the Company pursuant to this Agreement or for the application by the Company of the proceeds of the Warrant Certificates. The Warrant Agent shall have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by the Company in the performance of its covenants or agreements contained herein or in the Warrant Certificates or in the case of the receipt of any written demand from a holder of a Warrant Certificate with respect to such default, including, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, any duty or responsibility to initiate or attempt to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise or, except as provided in Section 6.2 hereof, to make any demand upon the Company.

5.3 Resignation, Removal and Appointment of Successors.

(a) The Company agrees, for the benefit of the holders from time to time of the Warrant Certificates, that there shall at all times be a Warrant Agent hereunder until all the Warrants have been exercised or are no longer exercisable.

(b) The Warrant Agent may at any time resign as agent by giving written notice to the Company of such intention on its part, specifying the date on which its desired resignation shall become effective; provided that such date shall not be less than three months after the date on which such notice is given unless the Company otherwise agrees. The Warrant Agent hereunder may be removed at any time by the filing with it of an instrument in writing signed by or on behalf of the Company and specifying such removal and the intended date when it shall become effective. Such resignation or removal shall take effect upon the appointment by the Company, as hereinafter provided, of a successor Warrant Agent (which shall be a bank or trust company authorized under the laws of the jurisdiction of its organization to exercise corporate trust powers) and the acceptance of such appointment by such successor Warrant Agent. The obligation of the Company under Section 5.2(a) shall continue to the extent set forth therein notwithstanding the resignation or removal of the Warrant Agent.

(c) In case at any time the Warrant Agent shall resign, or shall be removed, or shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or shall commence a voluntary case under the Federal bankruptcy laws, as now or hereafter constituted, or under any other applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or similar law or shall consent to the appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, custodian, liquidator, assignee, trustee, sequestrator (or other similar official) of the Warrant Agent or its property or affairs, or shall make an assignment for the benefit of creditors, or shall admit in writing its inability to pay its debts generally as they become due, or shall take corporate action in furtherance of any such action, or a decree or order for relief by a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall have been entered in respect of the Warrant Agent in an involuntary case under the Federal bankruptcy laws, as now or hereafter constituted, or any other applicable Federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or similar law, or a decree or order by a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall have been entered for the appointment of a receiver, custodian, liquidator, assignee, trustee, sequestrator (or similar official) of the Warrant Agent or of its property or affairs, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Warrant Agent or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation, winding up or liquidation, a successor Warrant Agent, qualified as aforesaid, shall be appointed by the Company by an instrument in writing, filed with the successor Warrant Agent. Upon the appointment as aforesaid of a successor Warrant Agent and acceptance by the successor Warrant Agent of such appointment, the Warrant Agent shall cease to be Warrant Agent hereunder.

 

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(d) Any successor Warrant Agent appointed hereunder shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to its predecessor and to the Company an instrument accepting such appointment hereunder, and thereupon such successor Warrant Agent, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the authority, rights, powers, trusts, immunities, duties and obligations of such predecessor with like effect as if originally named as Warrant Agent hereunder, and such predecessor, upon payment of its charges and disbursements then unpaid, shall thereupon become obligated to transfer, deliver and pay over, and such successor Warrant Agent shall be entitled to receive, all monies, securities and other property on deposit with or held by such predecessor, as Warrant Agent hereunder.

(e) Any corporation into which the Warrant Agent hereunder may be merged or converted or any corporation with which the Warrant Agent may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Warrant Agent shall be a party, or any corporation to which the Warrant Agent shall sell or otherwise transfer all or substantially all the assets and business of the Warrant Agent, provided that it shall be qualified as aforesaid, shall be the successor Warrant Agent under this Agreement without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto.

ARTICLE 6

MISCELLANEOUS

6.1 Amendment. This Agreement may be amended by the parties hereto, without the consent of the holder of any Warrant Certificate, for the purpose of curing any ambiguity, or of curing, correcting or supplementing any defective provision contained herein, or making any other provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under this Agreement as the Company and the Warrant Agent may deem necessary or desirable; provided that such action shall not materially adversely affect the interests of the holders of the Warrant Certificates.

6.2 Notices and Demands to the Company and Warrant Agent. If the Warrant Agent shall receive any notice or demand addressed to the Company by the holder of a Warrant Certificate pursuant to the provisions of the Warrant Certificates, the Warrant Agent shall promptly forward such notice or demand to the Company.

6.3 Addresses. Any communication from the Company to the Warrant Agent with respect to this Agreement shall be addressed to [•], Attention: [•] and any communication from the Warrant Agent to the Company with respect to this Agreement shall be addressed to Lyell Immunopharma, Inc., 201 Haskins Way, South San Francisco, 94080, Attention: Chief Financial Officer (or such other address as shall be specified in writing by the Warrant Agent or by the Company).

6.4 Governing Law. This Agreement and each Warrant Certificate issued hereunder shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

6.5 Delivery of Prospectus. The Company shall furnish to the Warrant Agent sufficient copies of a prospectus meeting the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, relating to the Warrant Securities deliverable upon exercise of the Warrants (the “Prospectus”), and the Warrant Agent agrees that upon the exercise of any Warrant, the Warrant Agent will deliver to the holder of the Warrant Certificate evidencing such Warrant, prior to or concurrently with the delivery of the Warrant Securities issued upon such exercise, a Prospectus. The Warrant Agent shall not, by reason of any such delivery, assume any responsibility for the accuracy or adequacy of such Prospectus.

 

11


6.6 Obtaining of Governmental Approvals. The Company will from time to time take all action which may be necessary to obtain and keep effective any and all permits, consents and approvals of governmental agencies and authorities and securities act filings under United States Federal and state laws (including without limitation a registration statement in respect of the Warrants and Warrant Securities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended), which may be or become requisite in connection with the issuance, sale, transfer, and delivery of the Warrant Securities issued upon exercise of the Warrants, the issuance, sale, transfer and delivery of the Warrants or upon the expiration of the period during which the Warrants are exercisable.

6.7 Persons Having Rights Under the Agreement. Nothing in this Agreement shall give to any person other than the Company, the Warrant Agent and the holders of the Warrant Certificates any right, remedy or claim under or by reason of this Agreement.

6.8 Headings. The descriptive headings of the several Articles and Sections of this Agreement are inserted for convenience only and shall not control or affect the meaning or construction of any of the provisions hereof.

6.9 Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which as so executed shall be deemed to be an original, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.

6.10 Inspection of Agreement. A copy of this Agreement shall be available at all reasonable times at the principal corporate trust office of the Warrant Agent for inspection by the holder of any Warrant Certificate. The Warrant Agent may require such holder to submit such holder’s Warrant Certificate for inspection by it.

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written.

 

LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC., as Company
By:  

 

Name:  

 

Title:  

 

ATTEST:  

 

 

 

COUNTERSIGNED
[], as Warrant Agent
By:  

 

Name:  

 

Title:  

 

ATTEST:  

 

 

 

 

[SIGNATURE PAGE TO LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC. COMMON STOCK WARRANT AGREEMENT]


EXHIBIT A

FORM OF WARRANT CERTIFICATE

[FACE OF WARRANT CERTIFICATE]

 

[Form of Legend if Warrants are not immediately exercisable.]    [Prior to [•], Warrants evidenced by this Warrant Certificate cannot be exercised.]

EXERCISABLE ONLY IF COUNTERSIGNED BY THE WARRANT AGENT AS PROVIDED HEREIN

VOID AFTER [•] P.M., [City] time, ON [•].


LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC.

WARRANT CERTIFICATE REPRESENTING

WARRANTS TO PURCHASE

COMMON STOCK, PAR VALUE $0.0001 PER SHARE

 

No. [•]   [•] Warrants

This certifies that [•] or registered assigns is the registered owner of the above indicated number of Warrants, each Warrant entitling such owner to purchase, at any time [after [•] p.m., [City] time, [on [•] and] on or before [•] p.m., [City] time, on [•], [•] shares of Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Warrant Securities”), of Lyell Immunopharma, Inc. (the “Company”) on the following basis: during the period from [•], through and including [•], the exercise price per Warrant Security will be $[•], subject to adjustment as provided in the Warrant Agreement (as hereinafter defined) (the “Warrant Price”). The Holder may exercise the Warrants evidenced hereby by providing certain information set forth on the back hereof and by paying in full, in lawful money of the United States of America, [in cash or by certified check or official bank check in New York Clearing House funds] [by bank wire transfer in immediately available funds], the Warrant Price for each Warrant Security with respect to which this Warrant is exercised to the Warrant Agent (as hereinafter defined) and by surrendering this Warrant Certificate, with the purchase form on the back hereof duly executed, at the corporate trust office of [name of Warrant Agent], or its successor as warrant agent (the “Warrant Agent”), which is, on the date hereof, at the address specified on the reverse hereof, and upon compliance with and subject to the conditions set forth herein and in the Warrant Agreement (as hereinafter defined).

The term “Holder” as used herein shall mean the person in whose name at the time this Warrant Certificate shall be registered upon the books to be maintained by the Warrant Agent for that purpose pursuant to Section 4 of the Warrant Agreement.

The Warrants evidenced by this Warrant Certificate may be exercised to purchase a whole number of Warrant Securities in registered form. Upon any exercise of fewer than all of the Warrants evidenced by this Warrant Certificate, there shall be issued to the Holder hereof a new Warrant Certificate evidencing Warrants for the number of Warrant Securities remaining unexercised.

This Warrant Certificate is issued under and in accordance with the Warrant Agreement dated as of [•] (the “Warrant Agreement”), between the Company and the Warrant Agent and is subject to the terms and provisions contained in the Warrant Agreement, to all of which terms and provisions the Holder of this Warrant Certificate consents by acceptance hereof. Copies of the Warrant Agreement are on file at the above-mentioned office of the Warrant Agent.

Transfer of this Warrant Certificate may be registered when this Warrant Certificate is surrendered at the corporate trust office of the Warrant Agent by the registered owner or such owner’s assigns, in the manner and subject to the limitations provided in the Warrant Agreement.

After countersignature by the Warrant Agent and prior to the expiration of this Warrant Certificate, this Warrant Certificate may be exchanged at the corporate trust office of the Warrant Agent for Warrant Certificates representing Warrants for the same aggregate number of Warrant Securities.

This Warrant Certificate shall not entitle the Holder hereof to any of the rights of a holder of the Warrant Securities, including, without limitation, the right to receive payments of dividends or distributions, if any, on the Warrant Securities (except to the extent set forth in the Warrant Agreement) or to exercise any voting rights.


Reference is hereby made to the further provisions of this Warrant Certificate set forth on the reverse hereof, which further provisions shall for all purposes have the same effect as if set forth at this place.

This Warrant Certificate shall not be valid or obligatory for any purpose until countersigned by the Warrant Agent.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Company has caused this Warrant to be executed in its name and on its behalf by the facsimile signatures of its duly authorized officers.

 

Dated:  
LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC., as Company
By:  

 

Name:  

 

Title:  

 

ATTEST:  

 

 

 

COUNTERSIGNED

[], as Warrant Agent

By:  

 

Name:  

 

Title:  

 

ATTEST:  

 

 

 


[REVERSE OF WARRANT CERTIFICATE]

(Instructions for Exercise of Warrant)

To exercise any Warrants evidenced hereby for Warrant Securities (as hereinafter defined), the Holder must pay, in lawful money of the United States of America, [in cash or by certified check or official bank check in New York Clearing House funds] [by bank wire transfer in immediately available funds], the Warrant Price in full for Warrants exercised, to [•] [address of Warrant Agent], Attention: [•], which payment must specify the name of the Holder and the number of Warrants exercised by such Holder. In addition, the Holder must complete the information required below and present this Warrant Certificate in person or by mail (certified or registered mail is recommended) to the Warrant Agent at the appropriate address set forth above. This Warrant Certificate, completed and duly executed, must be received by the Warrant Agent within five business days of the payment.

(To be executed upon exercise of Warrants)

The undersigned hereby irrevocably elects to exercise ______ Warrants, evidenced by this Warrant Certificate, to purchase _______ shares of the Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Warrant Securities”), of Lyell Immunopharma, Inc.. and represents that the undersigned has tendered payment for such Warrant Securities, in lawful money of the United States of America, [in cash or by certified check or official bank check in New York Clearing House funds] [by bank wire transfer in immediately available funds], to the order of Lyell Immunopharma, Inc., c/o [insert name and address of Warrant Agent], in the amount of $_________ in accordance with the terms hereof. The undersigned requests that said Warrant Securities be in fully registered form in the authorized denominations, registered in such names and delivered all as specified in accordance with the instructions set forth below.

If the number of Warrants exercised is less than all of the Warrants evidenced hereby, the undersigned requests that a new Warrant Certificate evidencing the Warrants for the number of Warrant Securities remaining unexercised be issued and delivered to the undersigned unless otherwise specified in the instructions below.

 

Dated:  

 

    Name:  

 

        Please Print
Address:        

 

     
(Insert Social Security or Other Identifying Number of Holder)      
Signature Guaranteed:  

 

     
  Signature      

(Signature must conform in all respects to name of holder as specified on the face of this Warrant Certificate and must bear a signature guarantee by a FINRA member firm).

This Warrant may be exercised at the following addresses: By hand at:

[•]

By mail at:

[Instructions as to form and delivery of Warrant Securities and, if applicable, Warrant Certificates evidencing Warrants for the number of Warrant Securities remaining unexercised—complete as appropriate.]


ASSIGNMENT

[Form of assignment to be executed if Warrant Holder desires to transfer Warrant]

FOR VALUE RECEIVED, ______________ hereby sells, assigns and transfers unto:

 

        
(Please print name and address including zip code)           Please print Social Security or other identifying number

the right represented by the within Warrant to purchase _______________ shares of [Title of Warrant Securities] of Lyell Immunopharma, Inc. to which the within Warrant relates and appoints ____________________ attorney to transfer such right on the books of the Warrant Agent with full power of substitution in the premises.

 

Dated:                                              

  

Name:

    
      Signature

(Signature must conform in all respects to name of holder as specified on the face of the Warrant)

 

Signature Guaranteed

 
EX-4.7

Exhibit 4.7

LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC.

AND

_____________, AS WARRANT AGENT

FORM OF PREFERRED STOCK

WARRANT AGREEMENT

DATED AS OF __________

 


LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC.

FORM OF PREFERRED STOCK WARRANT AGREEMENT

THIS PREFERRED STOCK WARRANT AGREEMENT (this “Agreement”), dated as of [•], between LYELL IMMUNOPHARMA, INC., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [•], a [corporation] [national banking association] organized and existing under the laws of [•] and having a corporate trust office in [•], as warrant agent (the “Warrant Agent”).

WHEREAS, the Company proposes to sell [If Warrants are sold with other securities — [title of such other securities being offered] (the “Other Securities”) with] warrant certificates evidencing one or more warrants (the “Warrants” or, individually, a “Warrant”) representing the right to purchase [title of Preferred Stock purchasable through exercise of Warrants] of the Company, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Warrant Securities”), such warrant certificates and other warrant certificates issued pursuant to this Agreement being herein called the “Warrant Certificates”; and

WHEREAS, the Company desires the Warrant Agent to act on behalf of the Company, and the Warrant Agent is willing so to act, in connection with the issuance, registration, transfer, exchange, exercise and replacement of the Warrant Certificates, and in this Agreement wishes to set forth, among other things, the form and provisions of the Warrant Certificates and the terms and conditions on which they may be issued, registered, transferred, exchanged, exercised and replaced.

NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and of the mutual agreements herein contained, the parties hereto agree as follows:

ARTICLE 1

ISSUANCE OF WARRANTS AND EXECUTION AND

DELIVERY OF WARRANT CERTIFICATES

1.1 Issuance of Warrants. [If Warrants alone —Upon issuance, each Warrant Certificate shall evidence one or more Warrants.] [If Other Securities and Warrants —Warrant Certificates will be issued in connection with the issuance of the Other Securities but shall be separately transferable and each Warrant Certificate shall evidence one or more Warrants.] Each Warrant evidenced thereby shall represent the right, subject to the provisions contained herein and therein, to purchase one Warrant Security. [If Other Securities and Warrants —Warrant Certificates will be issued with the Other Securities and each Warrant Certificate will evidence [•] Warrants for each [$[•] principal amount] [[•] shares] of Other Securities issued.]

1.2 Execution and Delivery of Warrant Certificates. Each Warrant Certificate, whenever issued, shall be in registered form substantially in the form set forth in Exhibit A hereto, shall be dated the date of its countersignature by the Warrant Agent and may have such letters, numbers, or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the officers of the Company executing the same may approve (execution thereof to be conclusive evidence of such approval) and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which the Warrants may be listed, or to conform to usage. The Warrant Certificates shall be signed on behalf of the Company by any of its present or future chief executive officers, presidents, senior vice presidents, vice presidents, chief financial officers, chief legal officers, treasurers, assistant treasurers, controllers, assistant controllers, secretaries or assistant secretaries under its corporate seal reproduced thereon. Such signatures may be manual or facsimile signatures of such authorized officers and may be imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Warrant Certificates. The seal of the Company may be in the form of a facsimile thereof and may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Warrant Certificates.

 

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No Warrant Certificate shall be valid for any purpose, and no Warrant evidenced thereby shall be exercisable, until such Warrant Certificate has been countersigned by the manual signature of the Warrant Agent. Such signature by the Warrant Agent upon any Warrant Certificate executed by the Company shall be conclusive evidence that the Warrant Certificate so countersigned has been duly issued hereunder.

In case any officer of the Company who shall have signed any of the Warrant Certificates either manually or by facsimile signature shall cease to be such officer before the Warrant Certificates so signed shall have been countersigned and delivered by the Warrant Agent, such Warrant Certificates may be countersigned and delivered notwithstanding that the person who signed such Warrant Certificates ceased to be such officer of the Company; and any Warrant Certificate may be signed on behalf of the Company by such persons as, at the actual date of the execution of such Warrant Certificate, shall be the proper officers of the Company, although at the date of the execution of this Agreement any such person was not such officer.

The term “holder” or “holder of a Warrant Certificate” as used herein shall mean any person in whose name at the time any Warrant Certificate shall be registered upon the books to be maintained by the Warrant Agent for that purpose.

1.3 Issuance of Warrant Certificates. Warrant Certificates evidencing the right to purchase Warrant Securities may be executed by the Company and delivered to the Warrant Agent upon the execution of this Agreement or from time to time thereafter. The Warrant Agent shall, upon receipt of Warrant Certificates duly executed on behalf of the Company, countersign such Warrant Certificates and shall deliver such Warrant Certificates to or upon the order of the Company.

ARTICLE 2

WARRANT PRICE, DURATION AND EXERCISE OF WARRANTS

2.1 Warrant Price. During the period specified in Section 2.2, each Warrant shall, subject to the terms of this Agreement and the applicable Warrant Certificate, entitle the holder thereof to purchase the number of Warrant Securities specified in the applicable Warrant Certificate at an exercise price of $[•] per Warrant Security, subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain events, as hereinafter provided. Such purchase price per Warrant Security is referred to in this Agreement as the “Warrant Price.

2.2 Duration of Warrants. Each Warrant may be exercised in whole or in part at any time, as specified herein, on or after [the date thereof] [•] and at or before [•] p.m., [City] time, on [•] or such later date as the Company may designate by notice to the Warrant Agent and the holders of Warrant Certificates mailed to their addresses as set forth in the record books of the Warrant Agent (the “Expiration Date”). Each Warrant not exercised at or before [•] p.m., [City] time, on the Expiration Date shall become void, and all rights of the holder of the Warrant Certificate evidencing such Warrant under this Agreement shall cease.